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102 terms

anatomy 1

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abdominal cavity
the cavity containing the major viscera
accessory organs
organs that food does not pass through and produce enzymes for digestion
alimentary canal
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
amniotic sac
a fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing embryo and fetus in the uterus
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
anatomical position
erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward
anterior
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body
anus
excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal
ascending colon
the part of the large intestine that ascends from the cecum to the transverse colon
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
blastocyte
an undifferentiated embryonic cell
blastula
early stage of an embryo produced by cleavage of an ovum
caudal
(of quadrupeds) situated in or directed toward the part of the body from which the tail arises
cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
chemical digestion
the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks
cleavage
(embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum
cloaca
a muscular cavity at the end of the large intestine through which digestive wastes, urine, and eggs or sperm leave the body
coelum
fluid-filled body cavity lined with mesoderm
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
coronal
divides the body into front and back
cranial
of or relating to the cranium which encloses the brain
crop
a pouch in many birds and some lower animals that resembles a stomach for storage and preliminary maceration of food
deep
having great spatial extension or penetration downward or inward from an outer surface or backward or laterally or outward from a center
descending colon
the part of the large intestine that descends from the transverse colon to the sigmoid colon
development
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically
diaphragm
(anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
differentiation
(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
distal
situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone
dorsal
belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part
dorsal cavity
one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body
duodenum
the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
ectoderm
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
egg
animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes
embryo
an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
endoderm
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
esophagus
the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
fallopian tube
either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
female
an animal that produces gametes (ova) that can be fertilized by male gametes (spermatozoa)
fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
fetus
an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
gall bladder
stores bile
gametes
sex cells
gastrulation
the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
gizzard
thick-walled muscular pouch below the crop in many birds and reptiles for grinding food
growth
(biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Ileum
the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
inferior
lower than a given reference point
jejunum
the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
large intestine
beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum
lateral
lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body
lipase
an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
liver
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity
male
an animal that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that can fertilize female gametes (ova)
mechanical digestion
Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food
medial
relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle
mesentry
membrane that holds small intestine to abdominal wall
mesoderm
the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
microvilli
projections that increase the cell's surface area
morula
a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits
mouth
the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge
movement
a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something
neurulation
development of the nervous system
organ
a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
organogenesis
The stage of human development during which the organs are formed. Organogenesis begins after gastrulation and is completed by the eight week of gestation.
pancreas
a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach
Parietal
of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium
pelvic cavity
the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera
pericardial
located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
peritoneal
of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum
peritoneum
a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
pharynx
the passage to the stomach and lungs
placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
pleura
the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
pleural
of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax
pleuroperitoneal
a term denoting the pleural and peritoneal serous membranes or the cavities they line
posterior
at or near the hind end in quadrupeds or toward the spine in primates
primitive streak
a structure that forms during the early stages of development and is the structure that will establish bilateral symmetry, determine the site of gastrulation and initiate germ layer formation
protease
any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
proximal
situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
rectum
the terminal section of the alimentary canal
reproduction
the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring
sagittal
located in a plane that is parallel to the central plane of the sagittal suture
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
serosa
a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body
small intestine
the longest part of the alimentary canal
sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
chemical compound released by the pancreas into the small intestine which neutralizes the acidity of the chyme
sperm
the male reproductive cell
superficial
involving a surface only
superior
above
teeth
the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
tissue
a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function
tongue
a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity
transverse
extending or lying across
transverse colon
the part of the large intestine that extends across the abdominal cavity and joins the ascending to the descending colon
uterus
a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females
ventral
nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism
villi
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine
visceral
relating to or affecting the viscera
yolk
nutritive material of an ovum stored for the nutrition of an embryo (especially the yellow mass of a bird or reptile egg)