ap chapter 2

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ap chapter 2


anything that has mass and occupies space


simple form of matter, a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more different substances


Atomic structure
Protons (+ or p)
Neutrons (n)
Electrons (- or e)
Atomic number
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus
Atomic weight
The mass of a single atom

Atomic number

The number of protons in an atom's nucleus

Atominc weight

The mass of a single atom

an atom that gains or loses electrons becomes

ion of the same element

an atom that gains or loses protons becomes

a different element

an atom that gains or losses neutrons becomes

an isotope of the same element

Electron shells

1. Number of electrons = Number of protons

2. Electrons in outermost shell participate in chemical bonds

3. Octet rule - atoms want 8 electrons in outermost shell

4. Atom will attempt to lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability


1. Ion
a. An atom that gains or loses electrons to become stable
b. An electrically charged atom (either + or -)
3. Cation ( a "+" for positive)
a. A positively charged ion
b. Formed when an atom loses electrons
4. Anion (an extra "n" for negative)
a. A negatively charged ion
b. Formed when an atom gains electrons

electrolyte=ions in your system


1. Contains the same number of protons but contain different numbers of neutrons
2. Radioactive isotope
a. Unstable isotope that undergoes nuclear breakdown and emits nuclear particles and radiation

Chemical bonds

1. Interactions between atoms
2. Chemical reaction (electrons)
a. Interaction between two or more atoms that occurs as a result of activity between electrons in their outermost shells.
3. Molecule (not all molecules are compound)
a. Two or more atoms joined together
Ex. O2
4. Compound (all compounds are molecules)
b.Formed by atoms of two or more elements
Ex. H2O

Ion bonds (consists of)

only ionic

Covalent (consists of)


Hydrogen (consists of)


Ionic Bond

1. Formed by transfer of electrons (btw ions)
2. Strong electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together. (positive ion attracted to negative ion and visa versa)
Example: Sodium Chloride
Sodium atom - 11 protons and 11 electrons
Loses an electron = 11 protons, 10 electrons
= positive charge
Chlorine atom - 17 protons and 17 electrons
Gains an electron = 17 protons, 18 electrons
= negative charge

Covalent bond

1. Formed by sharing (connecting) of electron between pairs between atoms (vs. donating or receiving)
Examples: carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) [oxygen has 2 extra electrons]
2. Polar covalent bond - unequal sharing of electrons (causes polarity)
Example - water
Relative positive and negative charges in molecule
3. Nonpolar covalent bond - equal sharing of elections
Example - lipids (lipids don't dissolve in water)


separation of charges

hydrogen bond

1. Results from unequal charge distribution on molecules
2. Extremely important in life
Found in: water, DNA, proteins (eggs frying)

reaction between molecules

Chemical reactions (2)

1. Synthesis reaction
a. Formation of new chemical bonds
b. A + B AB (note: A+B = substrate, AB=product)
c. Also called - dehydration reaction (pulling water out), anabolic reaction (require energy build things up-metabolism)
2. Decomposition reaction
a. Breaking of chemical bonds
b. AB A + B
c. Also called - hydrolysis reaction (water to break bond), catabolic reaction (releases energy)

organic vs. inorganic

Won't be asked organic vs. inorganic
1. Organic compounds
a. Contains carbon to carbon bond or carbon to hydrogen bond
Example: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
2. Inorganic compounds
a. Does not contain C to C or C to H bond (tends to be less complicated)
Example: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrolytes

properties of water (on test)

1. Polarity
2. Universal Solvent
3. High specific heat
4. High heat of vaporization
5. Cohesion

4 properties of water (on test)

1. High specific heat; this is the requirement of high amount of energy to change the temperature of water. this allows the body to maintain a realtively constant body temperature. As a result blood doesn't boil when external temp. increases
2. High heat of vaporization: requirement of high amount of energy to change the water from a liquid to a gas. this allows the evaporation of sweat to cool the body.
3. polarity: due to the unequal sharing of electrons the oxygen end of the water has a relative negative charge & the hydrogens has a relatively positive charge. this allow water to be a universal solvent. it can dissolve everything but lipids
4. Cohesion: due to the hydrogen bonds in water it acts as a unit. it flows & doesn't separate. this allows water to function in the lubrication of joints and as shock absorber.

Inorganic molecules

1. Oxygen
2. Carbon dioxide
3. Electrolytes
a. Cations
b. Anions
4. Acids and bases

Acid & Bases

1. Acids - Proton donor or hydrogen ion donor (those 2 things are the same thing)
2. Bases - Proton acceptor or hydrogen ion acceptor
3. pH scale - Measures hydrogen ion concentration (H goes up then pH goes down)
a. Acidosis (decrease pH)
b. Alkalosis (increase pH)
4. Buffer - prevents drastic changes in pH


1. Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
2. Commonly called sugars and starches
3. Disaccharides (2 sugar) and polysaccharides (many sugar)
4. Primary source of chemical energy
5. Monosaccharides - basic unit = monomer/subunit. Ex. glucose

energy needs sugar
RBC & brain need sugar (carbs)



Macromolecules (units)

polymer = many (ex. pearl necklace)
monomer/subunit = single (ex. single pearl)


aka = polypeptide
1. Contains, C, H, N & 0
2. Most abundant organic compounds
3. Made up of amino acids (subunit, 20 types) ****
a. Essential amino acids - has to come from diet
b. Side chain is unique identifying part of amino acids
4. Peptide bond is formed between amino acids
5. Levels of protein structure
I. Primary structure - occurs in all proteins
II. Secondary structure- occurs in all proteins. start to pleat or fold due to hydrogen bonds
III. Tertiary structure - occurs in all proteins. 3 dimensional folding. because nonpolar bonds want to get away from each other.
IV. Quaternary structure - occurs in some proteins. 2 or more polypeptide chains may be connected to form a single protein molecule. Ex. Hemoglobin = 4 chains of protein.


protein then changes function

denature proteins = acid & heat.
Ex. insulin can't be swallowed b/c the the acid in your stomach would denature the insulin.


1. Water-insoluble organic molecules (not automatically fat)
2. Composed largely of C, H with a small amount of O (nonpolar)
3. Energy source - long term
4. Structural role - adipose tissue protective
5. Integral parts of cell membranes
6. Macromolecule not a polymer
***subunit = trigliserides

Lipids (subunits)

***1. Triglycerides, or fats
a.Most abundant lipids and most concentrated source of energy
b. Saturated vs unsaturated
**c. Made up of glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids
2. Phospholipids (2 fatty acids)
a.One fatty acid replaced with phosphate group
b. Hydrophilic=water loving
c. Hydrophobic=water fearing
d. main component of cell membrane. emulsifies/surrounds the fat so it can mix w/ watr & thus digest
3. Steroids (Not a subunit)
a. Involved in many structural and functional roles


1. Not a subunit of lipids
2. Involved in many structural and functional roles
3. not digested or broken down
4. not fat, similar to wax
5. cholesterol #1 steriod. liver will make cholesterol
6. steriod/cholesterol needs
a. part of cell membrane for support
b. to make other things (ex. steriod hormone=estrogen)
c. vitamin D

Nucleic acids

Subunit = nucleiotide
macromolecule, polymer
1. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in nucleus
a. Pentose sugar (deoxyribose)= nucleiotide
b. Phosphate group= nucleiotide
c. Nitrogenous base = nucleiotide
d. Cytosine, thymine, guanine, or adenine
e. Functions as hereditary molecule (genes)
2. RNA (ribonucleic acid) in cytoplasm
a. Pentose sugar (ribose)= nucleiotide
b. Phosphate group= nucleiotide
c. Nitrogenous base= nucleiotide
d. Adenine, uracil, guanine, or cytosine
e. Three types (messenger, ribosomal, transfer)
4. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
a. 3 phosphate groups
b. energy currency = short term, must have or cell will die


**1. All the chemical reactions that occur in body cells
2. Catabolism (ex. digestion of food) (hydrolysis)
a. Releases energy
b. Breaks down molecules
3. Anabolism (dehydration synthesis)
a. Requires energy
b. Builds up molecules
3. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a. Ribose - a pentose sugar
b. Adenine
c.Three phosphate subunits
d.High-energy bonds present between phosphate groups

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