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Sociology Chapter 2 and 3
Terms in this set (85)
the total way of life shared by members of a community. Includes language, values, symbolic meanings, technology, and material objects.
language, values, rules, and knowledge shared by society
physical objects a society produces, like tools, streets, sculptures, and toys. Depend on nonmaterial culture for meaning.
The Structural- Functionalist Approach
the underlying basis of interaction. Views culture as a 'given'. Emphasizes how culture shapes us instead of how culture itself is shaped. Concentrates on how norms, values, and language guide our behavior.
The Conflict Theory Approach
Focuses on culture as a social product. Interests are served by how culture develops. Investigates how cultures can reinforce power divisions within society. Argues that money brings power and status, and cultural capital does the same.
Refers to the attitudes and knowledge that characterize the upper social classes. If you lack in some social capital needed to marry into or work in the upper classes, can be ridiculed if you try to break into these social circles.
keeps the social classes apart
The Symbolic Interactionist Approach
interested in how people interpret and use what they see in the media. Explores the meanings people derive from culture and cultural products, and how the meanings result from social interaction
problem solving, relative, and a social product
Culture is problem solving
cultural patterns evolve to give solutions to recurrent problems that humans encounter in their physical environments. These problems are universal, the solutions people adopt vary a lot.
requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture
the tendency to judge other cultures according to the norms and values of our own culture
Culture is a social product
cultural diversity in human societies result from unique gene pools and cultural evolution. Depends on language. People learn culture, they use it, and change it.
the study of the biological basis of all forms of human behavior. Human behavior is based in biology developed through evolution and natural selection.
Sociologists argue that...
humans have developed altruism (unselfish behavior) as an adaptive mechanism.
The Carriers of Culture
language, values, and norms
the ability to communicate in symbols- orally, by manual sign, or by writing.
Language as culture
embodies the values and meanings of a society, rituals, ceremonies, stories, and prayers.
Language as a symbol
symbolizes a group's separation from others while simultaneously symbolizing unity within the group of speakers
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
argues that the grammar, structure, and categories embodied in each language affect how its speakers see reality. (also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis)
shared ideas about desirable goals. Some values tend to be universal, most groups value stability and security, a strong family and good health. Example of group values- tenderness, cooperation, toughness and competition.
shared rules of conduct that specify how people should think
norms that are customary, normal, habitual ways a group does things.
norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right or wrong; they carry a moral connotation
mores that are enforced and sanctioned by the authority of government
forces and processes that encourage people to follow the norms and values of their culture and society. Through indoctrination, learning and experience, many societies norms come to seem natural so we can't imagine acting differently. No society relies completely on voluntary compliance- all encourage conformity by use of sanctions.
rewarded for conformity or punishments for nonconformity
groups that share the overall culture of a society, but maintain a distinctive set of values, norms, lifestyles, traditions, and language.
groups whose values, interests, beliefs, and lifestyles conflict with those of the larger culture
the process through which individuals learn and adopt the values and social practices of the dominant group, more or less giving up their own values in the process
the belief that the different cultural strands within a culture should be valued and nourished
Sources of cultural diversity and change
environment, isolation, cultural diffusion, technology, and mass media
different environmental conditions in which people live, determine things like what economies can flourish, what foods are practical, the degree of scarcity or abundance
when a culture is cut off from interaction with other cultures, it is likely to develop unique norms and values
the process by which aspects of one culture or subculture are incorporated into another.
Globalization of culture
spreads cultural element around the world
tools available to a culture will affect its norms and values and its economic and social relationships. Example: Facebook. Attitudes and access towards privacy are affected.
aspects of culture that are widely accessible and commonly shared by most members of a society, especially those in the middle, working, and lower classes.
the cultural preferences associated with the upper class
Dominant Cultural Themes
gives them a distinct character and direction. Those themes also help create a closed system. New ideas, values, and inventions gain acceptance when they fit into the existing culture without too greatly distorting existing patterns
Consequences of cultural change and diversity
cultural lag and cultural shock
occurs when one part of a culture changes more rapidly than another
refers to disconcerting and unpleasant experiences that can occur when individuals encounter a different culture
the process through which ideas, resources, practices, and people increasingly operate in a worldwide rather than local framework.
The 3 impacts of Globalization
political, economic, and cultural
Cultural change occurs
within a society and across societies
Sources of Globalization
technological and political change
cell and satellite phones, email, and internet
collapse of Soviet Union, emergence of European Union, and the North American Free Trade Agreement
Cultural impact of globalization
global spread of culture- movies, tv, music, literature, and other arts that are enjoyed around the world. Cultural values transmitted, global exposure to cultural alternatives
Economic impact of globalization
economic activity takes place between people who live in different nations as goods and services are produced and sold internationally. Some scholars view international economic enterprise as a path to better quality of living globally. Others view it as a path that exploits poorer nations
Political impact of globalization
powerful transnational corporations now dwarf many national governments. Proliferation of international organizations.
Sources of cultural diversity and change
popular culture and high culture
the process of learning the rules, practices, and values necessary for participation in culture and society.
ways of behaving and thinking that are established and expected in specific roles. For example: student, teacher, mother, father
Monkeying with Isolation
Harry Harlow studied total isolation in infant monkeys into their development into adulthood. Bizarre behaviors, including inability to mate and care for young, were observed.
Socialization in monkeying with isolation
after six months, had mixed results. Many did not respond.
The Necessity of nurture for humans
we can't ethically isolate children from parents or nurturing to study the results. Profound isolation has happened in real life. Studies of children raised in low quality orphanages show social problems even after adoption into good homes. Also their is a greater tendency toward autistic/ near- autistic behaviors.
The story of Genie and the consequences of severe deprivation
until age 13, Genie's father kept her locked in a small room, tied to a chair by a harness. Her mother is blind, disabled, and cowed could not help her. Genie and her mom ran away and Genie could not talk, walk, or use a toilet. After years of therapy, her abilities improved but remained below the level needed for her to live on her own.
Structural Functional Theory of Socialization
in a properly functioning society, all elements of society work together for the good of all. Through being properly socialized, young people learn how to become happy and productive members of society. Also teaches acceptance of existing inequalities in the world
Socialization and Schools
structural functionalists show that schools teach children not only to read and write, but also how to obey authority and conform to society's rules
Conflict Theory of Socialization
focuses on how socialization reinforces unequal power arrangements. Useful for understanding how socialization can quash dissent and social change and reproduce inequalities. It is less useful for explaining the sources and benefits of a stable social system.
Symbolic Interaction Theory of Socialization for the looking glass self
Charles Horton Cooley believed that self concept is developed through the looking glass self. We imagine how we appear to others. We imagine how others judge us based on those appearances. We ponder, internalize, or reject these judgements.
our sense of who we are as individuals
Symbolic Interaction Theory of Socialization for role taking
George Herbert Mead believes that the self has two components, called the I and the me. I refers to the spontaneous, creative part of the self; me describes the part of the self that responds to others' expectations. We learn to function in society by balancing the desires of the I with the social awareness of the me through role taking
involves imagining ourselves in the role of others in order to determine the criteria others will use to judge our behavior.
the role players with whom we have close personal relationships
The Generalized other
combines the expectations of all with whom we interact
Agents of Socializations
all individuals, groups, and media that teach social norms such as family, peers, school, mass media, religion, and community
most important socialization agent. Teaches practical skills, language, values, beliefs, and goals. A family's race, class, and religion shape the child's initial experiences in the neighborhood and at school.
individuals who share a similar age and social status (members of a peer group). Kids who hang out together tend to dress and act similarly. Peer pressure creates conformity to the peer group. If peer values and lifestyles are: different from a persons family--> conflict with family similar to person's family--> stronger ties to family
transmits society's central values. Teach basic skills and technical knowledge. Transmit central values of the dominant group or culture. Teach obedience and self- discipline. Some schools instill desire to compete and achieve. Schools serve as the training ground for the workplace, the military, and other bureaucracies.
forms of communication designed to teach broad audiences. Television, films, websites, podcasts, magazines, billboards, etc. Selective perception- we embrace content that supports our beliefs. TV characters become role models whose opinions are important.
source of individual direction.Often the values and moral principles in religious doctrine are compatible with the ideals of other agents of socialization. Other times the values and moral principles in religious doctrine create significant differences in socialization.
people who share a common space or sense of common identity. Provides both links and buffers between families, peer groups, and larger society. Each community provides its own set of groups, resources, institutions, and norms that function together as an agent of socialization. Communities with strong institutions and 'sense of place' tend to raise children who value community engagement
Socialization through the life course
childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and age 65 and beyond
primary socialization. Personality development and role learning.
anticipatory socialization. Role learning that prepares us for future roles.
professional socialization. Role learning that provides knowledge and cultural understanding of a profession.
Age 65 and beyond
role exit. New identity as retiree; adaptations to time, loss of spouse, declining health, financial shifts.
prepares us for the roles we will take in the future. Occurs throughout the stages of life course, but especially in adolescence. Children play their visions of role identities and behaviors.
through this, police recruits learn both technical skills and the cultural values shared by police officers.
occurs when we abandon our self- concept and way of life for a radically different one (often against our will). It is the process of learning the beliefs and values associated with a new way of life. Examples: people who become permanently disabled, when an individuals behavior leads to social problems- as is the case with habitual criminals, problem alcoholics, and mentally disturbed individuals.
Resocialization total institutions
facilities in which all aspects of our life are strictly controlled for the purposes of radical resocialization. Examples: military boot camps, prisons, mental hospitals, monasteries.
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