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AP US HISTORY

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Albany Plan
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
Alexander Hamilton
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
Alfred (Thayer) Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)
American Federation of Labor
The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
Andrew Carnegie
Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL
Annapolis Convention
Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island
Antebellum
phrase meaning before the civil war
Anthracite Coal Strike
Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer
Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Article X
Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789
Atlanta Compromise
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice
Atlantic Charter
product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Taft cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources
Barbary pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
Benjamin Franklin
During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Bill Of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Bleeding Kansas
Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.
Boss Tweed
Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC
Boston Massacre
In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed.
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Boxer Rebellion
1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners
Brigham Young
Leader of Mormons
Browder v. Gayle
(1956) Ended segregation in the public transportation system after the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Brown v. Board of Education
1954) Court ruled that seperate facilities were not equal. Instructed integration. Overruled Plessy v. Furgeson
Bull Moose Party
Teddy Roosevelt's party in the election of 1812
cash and carry
countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract
Chatauqua Movement
American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S
Citizen Genet
French minister to the US, broke rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War
Clayton Anti-trust Ac
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Coxey's Army
Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey. Marched on Washington in 1894.
Credit Moblier Scandal
1872 - Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
Crop Lien System
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
Cult of Domesticity
Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses
Cyrus McCormick
Invented mechanical reaper
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Declaratory Act
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.
Deists
Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.
Democrats 1836-1850
TRADITION, opposed banks and corporations as state legislated economic privilege, anti state legistlaed reforms and preferred individual freedom of choice, TJ agrarians, expansion, progress thru external growth, SOUTH
Dollar Diplomacy
Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Elkins Act
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
Embargo Act
In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807)
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US
Eugene V. Debs
Supreme Court case that upheld state restrictions on the working hours of women
Farmer's Alliance
1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers
Federal Reserve System
1913 - central banking system of the US - created by the Federal Reserve Act - quasi public system
Federal Trade Commision
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy
Federalists
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
Food Administration
Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
Force Act
Passed after civil war - protected voting rights of blacks
Forty Acres and a mule
failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with
Four Freedoms
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
Fourteen Points
Speech delivered by Woodrow Wilson at a Joint Session of Congress - gave reasons US should engage in WWI
Free Soilers
People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories
Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Freeport Doctrine
Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Gag Rule
1835-1844 - stopped any anti-slavery discussion in Congress
Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
Gilded Age
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
Hartford Convention
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama
Haymarket Incident
Worker rally in Chicago at which a bomb was detonated killing policemen - workers were immigrants so incident led to anti-immigration feelings
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Henry Clay's American System
Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country's transporation system
Hepburn Act
(1906) allowed ICC to regulate shipping prices of railroads [pro farmer]
Whigs
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
Horace Mann
Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation
Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
Indian removal act
This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830)
Insular Cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Intolerable Acts
Intolerable Acts, passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.
Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
J.P. Morgan
Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 - built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads - marketed US governemnt securities on large scale
Jacob Riis
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
James K. Polk
Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
John C Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
John D. Rockefeller
American businessman - founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)
John Slidell
Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Jefferson and Madison's response to Alien and Sedition Acts. Promoted states' right to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional (1799)
Knights of Labor
1869 - established in Philidalphia - suppose to be a secrete faternal order - first union to allow all laborers
Know Nothing
1850s - Nativist movement - against Irish Immigrants
Korematsu v. United States
(1944) Japanese American was convicted of not reporting to internment camp. Court upheld the president's power to intern probable threats during wartime
Lecompton Constitution
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected
Lend Lease Act
replaced cash and carry; allowed Britain to borrow US war materials
Lincoln-Douglass Debates
Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Lochner V. New York
Supreme Court case that decided against setting up an 8 hour work day for bakers
Lucretia Mott
Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize SenThe Mason and Dixon Line was created in the 1760s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimoreeca Falls
Lusitania
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs - had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Mann-Elkin Act
1910, gave the Interstate Comerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companie; included communications
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
Mason and Dixon Line
The Mason and Dixon line was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Molasses Act of 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
Muckrakers
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Muller v Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Munn V. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
National Banking Act
1863 - Established system of national charters for banks
National Labor Union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's philosphy - trusts were busted so government must now regulate business
New Nationalism
Theo Roosevelt's system in which the government would cordinate economic activity - government would regulate business
Niagara Movement
A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909
Nonintercourse Act of 1809
Provided that Americans could trade with all nations except Britain and France (1809)
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Nullification crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate
Open Door Policy
Foreign policy that stated all countries should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights
Ostend Manifesto
Attempt to buy Cuba from Spain for $20 million - not carried out
Peggy Eaton affair
Calhoun's wife slandered Peggy Eaton, causing a heated debate between Jackson and Calhoun
Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Platt Amendment
Specified when the US could interviene in Cuban affairs
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Plessy was made to sit in the black train car because he was an octoroon (1/8 black). Railroad company was on his side because they paid too much to maintain seperate cars. Established "seperate but equal" clause
Pontiac's Rebellion
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Populist Party
Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers
Progressive Movement
(1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax
Pullman Strike
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
Radical Reconstruction
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
Redemption (redeemers)
When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction
Republicans 1780-1801
States' rights, strict interpretation, encouraged agriculture and rural life, South and West, France, Civil liberties and trust in people
Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Robert LaFollette
Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Roger Williams
A dissenter, Roger Williams clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. After being banished from Massachusetts in 1636, he traveled south, where he founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Russo-Japanese War
War between two foriegn powers that Roosevelt helped negiotate a peace treaty for, and recieved a Nobel Peacy Prize for his work
Salutary Neglect
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War.
Samuel (Golden Rule) Jones
American Political reformer - advanced employee-management relations
Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party..
Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Seneca Falls Convention
Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First United States law to limit trusts and big business. Said that any trust that was purposefully restraining interstate trade was illegal.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Spanish-American War
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism
Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Square Deal
Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation
Stephen Douglas
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850
Suffolk Resolves
The First Continental Congress endorsed Massachusetts's Suffolk Resolves, which declared that the colonies need not obey the 1773 Coercive Acts, since they infringed upon basic liberties.
Sumner-brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
Sussex/Arabic Pledges
Germany pledged to stop submarine warfare after sinking of Lusitania
Tallmadge Amendment
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted. In 1821, Congress reached a compromise for Missouri's admission known as the Missouri Compromise.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but this amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
The Jay Treaty
Treaty in which Britain agreed to evacuate its posts on the US western frontier (1794)
The Pinckney Treaty
Treaty with Spain which opened trade and redefined Florida boundary (1795)
The Whiskey Rebellion
group of farmers refused to pay federal excise tax on whiskey, Washington responds decisively with troops (1794)
The XYZ Affair
Three French agents asked for over ten million dollars in tribute before they would begin diplomatic talks with America. When Americans heard the news, they were outraged. Adams decided to strengthen the Navy to show France that America was a force to be reckoned with
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Tories
The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.
Townshend Duties
Popularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.
Transcendentalism
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Treaty of Ghent
: Treaty that ended the War of 1812 and maintained prewar conditions
Treaty Of Grenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Grenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War - US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states - US paid Mexico $15 million dollars
Treaty of Paris (1763):
The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.
Treaty of San Lorenzo
Signed with Spain in 1795, the Treaty of San Lorenzo - also known as Pinckney's Treaty - gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and established the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I - most important part was the forced blame on Germany and other allies
Uncle Tom's Cabin
abolitionist book by Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States v. E.C. Knight Co
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Upton Sinclair
author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906 - wrote The Jungle
Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. The Virginia Plan favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In opposition, the small states proposed the New Jersey Plan. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
Virginia Resolves
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
W.E.B. DuBois
Black civil rights activist
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815)
William Jennings Bryan
Principle figure in Populist Party - served as Sec. of State under Wilson (resigned in protest of WWI) - prosecutor in the Scopes Trial
William Lloyd Garrison
White Abolitionist - Early 1800s - published The Liberator
WIlliam Penn
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow (sensationalist) journalism."
William Seward
US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846)
Woodrow Wilson
American President during WWI - had 14 point plan - key figure in League of Nations
Worcester v Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Zimmerman Note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile