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Albany Plan

Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.

Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.

Alfred (Thayer) Mahan

Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy

Alien and Sedition Acts

A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)

American Federation of Labor

The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886

Andrew Carnegie

Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL

Annapolis Convention

Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island


phrase meaning before the civil war

Anthracite Coal Strike

Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer


Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states

Article X

Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations

Articles of Confederation

Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789

Atlanta Compromise

Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

Atlantic Charter

product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples

Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair

Taft cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources

Barbary pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Battles of Lexington and Concord

The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

Benjamin Franklin

During the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin served as an ambassador to France. Franklin was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. Franklin has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy

Big Stick Policy

Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen

Bill Of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

Bland-Allison Act

1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.

Bleeding Kansas

Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state

Booker T. Washington

Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.

Boss Tweed

Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC

Boston Massacre

In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared and five colonists were killed.

Boston Tea Party

Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.

Boxer Rebellion

1900 - Nativist rebellion in China - tried to get rid of all of the foreigners

Brigham Young

Leader of Mormons

Browder v. Gayle

(1956) Ended segregation in the public transportation system after the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Brown v. Board of Education

1954) Court ruled that seperate facilities were not equal. Instructed integration. Overruled Plessy v. Furgeson

Bull Moose Party

Teddy Roosevelt's party in the election of 1812

cash and carry

countries such as Britain and France would have to pay for American goods in cash and provide transportation for them. This would keep US ships out of the war zone and eliminate the need for war loans

Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge

1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract

Chatauqua Movement

American Adult educational movement which was popular through the 19th and 20th movements - brought people into communities to lecture

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882 - Chinese immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S

Citizen Genet

French minister to the US, broke rules of diplomacy by appealing directly to Americans

Civil Rights Act of 1866

Gave more rights to Blacks after Civil War

Clayton Anti-trust Ac

1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

Compromise of 1850

Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC

Compromise of 1877

Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.

Coxey's Army

Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey. Marched on Washington in 1894.

Credit Moblier Scandal

1872 - Union Pacific Railway created a ficticious construction company and hired itself to work (using government funds) - scandal broke loose and leaders attempted to bribe Congress with Union Pacific stock

Creel Committee

Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty

Crittenden Compromise

1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans

Crop Lien System

System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.

Cult of Domesticity

Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses

Cyrus McCormick

Invented mechanical reaper

Dawes Act

An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

Declaratory Act

Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies.


Influenced by the spirit of rationalism, Desists believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws.

Democrats 1836-1850

TRADITION, opposed banks and corporations as state legislated economic privilege, anti state legistlaed reforms and preferred individual freedom of choice, TJ agrarians, expansion, progress thru external growth, SOUTH

Dollar Diplomacy

Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies

Dorothea Dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

Dred Scott v Sanford

Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens

Elkins Act

(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers

Embargo Act

In response to impressment, this bill halted all foreign trade with disastrous economic consequences (1807)

Emilio Aguinaldo

Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US

Eugene V. Debs

Supreme Court case that upheld state restrictions on the working hours of women

Farmer's Alliance

1880s - Organized farming economic system - tried to raise commedy prices by collective action of individual farmers

Federal Reserve System

1913 - central banking system of the US - created by the Federal Reserve Act - quasi public system

Federal Trade Commision

A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy


Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.

First Continental Congress

The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.

First Great Awakening

The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.

Food Administration

Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers

Force Act

Passed after civil war - protected voting rights of blacks

Forty Acres and a mule

failed attempt to help freed blacks during reconstruction - had promised blacks forty acres of land and a mule to plow with

Four Freedoms

Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured

Fourteen Points

Speech delivered by Woodrow Wilson at a Joint Session of Congress - gave reasons US should engage in WWI

Free Soilers

People who opposed expansion of slavery into western territories

Freedmen's Bureau

1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

Freeport Doctrine

Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property

Fugitive Slave Law

Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

Gag Rule

1835-1844 - stopped any anti-slavery discussion in Congress

Gentlemen's Agreement

In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.

Gilded Age

Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization

Great White Fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."

Harriet Beecher Stowe

She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.

Hartford Convention

Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

U.S. garantee of independence for newly created Republic of Panama

Haymarket Incident

Worker rally in Chicago at which a bomb was detonated killing policemen - workers were immigrants so incident led to anti-immigration feelings

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

Henry Clay's American System

Plan for economic growth: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country's transporation system

Hepburn Act

(1906) allowed ICC to regulate shipping prices of railroads [pro farmer]


The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.

Homestead Act

1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years

Horace Mann

Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation

Horatio Alger

Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys

Indian removal act

This act granted the president funds and authority to remove Native Americans (1830)

Insular Cases

Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

Intolerable Acts

Intolerable Acts, passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.


Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations

J.P. Morgan

Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 - built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads - marketed US governemnt securities on large scale

Jacob Riis

Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen

James K. Polk

Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.

John C Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification

John D. Rockefeller

American businessman - founder of Standard Oil Co. (major monopoly)

John Slidell

Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Judiciary Act of 1789

established a Supreme Court and district courts (1789)

Kansas-Nebraska Act

created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act

Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Jefferson and Madison's response to Alien and Sedition Acts. Promoted states' right to nullify federal laws considered unconstitutional (1799)

Knights of Labor

1869 - established in Philidalphia - suppose to be a secrete faternal order - first union to allow all laborers

Know Nothing

1850s - Nativist movement - against Irish Immigrants

Korematsu v. United States

(1944) Japanese American was convicted of not reporting to internment camp. Court upheld the president's power to intern probable threats during wartime

Lecompton Constitution

pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected

Lend Lease Act

replaced cash and carry; allowed Britain to borrow US war materials

Lincoln-Douglass Debates

Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott

Lochner V. New York

Supreme Court case that decided against setting up an 8 hour work day for bakers

Lucretia Mott

Early 1800s - Feminist - helped organize SenThe Mason and Dixon Line was created in the 1760s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimoreeca Falls


May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs - had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.

Mann-Elkin Act

1910, gave the Interstate Comerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companie; included communications

Marbury v. Madison

(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review

Mason and Dixon Line

The Mason and Dixon line was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War

Missouri Compromise

Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)

Molasses Act of 1733

British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.


1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business

Muller v Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

Munn V. Illinois

(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads

Nashville Convention

Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.

National Banking Act

1863 - Established system of national charters for banks

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

New England Confederation

New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson's philosphy - trusts were busted so government must now regulate business

New Nationalism

Theo Roosevelt's system in which the government would cordinate economic activity - government would regulate business

Niagara Movement

A group of black and white reformers who organized the NAACP in 1909

Nonintercourse Act of 1809

Provided that Americans could trade with all nations except Britain and France (1809)

Northwest Ordinance

The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation

Nullification crisis

Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate

Open Door Policy

Foreign policy that stated all countries should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights

Ostend Manifesto

Attempt to buy Cuba from Spain for $20 million - not carried out

Peggy Eaton affair

Calhoun's wife slandered Peggy Eaton, causing a heated debate between Jackson and Calhoun

Pendleton Civil Service Act

(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.

Platt Amendment

Specified when the US could interviene in Cuban affairs

Plessy v. Ferguson

(1896) Plessy was made to sit in the black train car because he was an octoroon (1/8 black). Railroad company was on his side because they paid too much to maintain seperate cars. Established "seperate but equal" clause

Pontiac's Rebellion

After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Populist Party

Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers

Progressive Movement

(1901 -1917Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax

Pullman Strike

1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery

Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Radical Reconstruction

Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war

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