53 terms

7th Grade Science - Scientific Method & Graphing Test

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Terms in this set (...)

Define Variable
conditions that change in an experiment
Define Independent/Manipulated Variable
a factor or condition that is intentionally changed by the experimenter
Define Dependent/Responding Variable
a factor or condition that is the result of a change by the experimenter
Define Hypothesis
a prediction or an educated guess (written as an if/then statement)
Define Background information
research information you collected about your topic
Define Scientific Method
organized problem-solving procedures in science (a 6 step method)
Define Control Group
the untreated group that provides a basis for comparison
Define Conclusion
the answer to the problem in an experiment
Define Problem
the question you are trying to solve in an experiment (it is always written as a question)
Define Constant/Control Variables
the variables that need to be recognized but are not allowed to change; they help make an experiment fair
Define Inference
an explanation of an observation
List the 6 steps of the scientific method in order...KNOW FOR TEST!!!
1. Problem (question you are trying to solve)
2. Background Information (research you collect)
3. Hypothesis (educated guess)
4. Experimentation (3 parts: materials, procedures, controls/variables)
5. Collect Data (quantitative or qualitative)
6. Conclusion (the answer)
What are the 3 parts of experimentation?
1. Materials--a list of equipment needed to conduct the experiment
2. Procedures--a list of steps you plan to follow to conduct the experiment
3. Controls & Variables--an experiment should have both a control group and an experimental group; an experiment also needs an independent/manipulated variable, dependent/responding variable, and a constant variable
Your mom comes in from outside and her hair is drenched. It must be raining outside. Is this an observation or inference?
Inference (you inferred it was raining, but maybe it wasn't, maybe she had just taken a shower)
The poodle is white and fluffy. Is this an observation or inference?
Observation
What are the two names for a variable that is changed by an experimenter?
Independent/Manipulated
What are the two names for a variable that changes in response to the change made by the experimenter?
Dependent/Responding
What are some ways to organize your results in an experiment?
-By using a data table
-By using a computer
You are studying how the amount of fertilizer in grass affects the height of the grass. What is the Independent/Manipulated variable?
Amount of fertilizer
You are studying how the amount of fertilizer in grass affects the height of the grass. What is the Dependent/Responding variable?
Height of grass
You are studying how high different types of balls bounce when dropped from a balcony 50 ft in the air. What is the Independent/Manipulated variable?
The type of ball bounced
You are studying how high different types of balls bounce when dropped from a balcony 50 ft in the air. What is the Dependent/Responding variable?
The height of the bounce (affected by the type of ball)
You are studying how high different types of balls bounce when dropped from a balcony 50 ft in the air. What is the constant variable?
Dropping the balls side by side from the same balcony, at the same time, at the same height (50ft), etc.

Constant variables are held constant and never change; they help to make an experiment fair
Observation are a type of data recorded using your 5 senses. Observations are facts. Observations may be quantitative or qualitative. Explain the difference.
Quantitative observations - data expressed in numbers (the grass grew 72 inches; there were 5 million blades of grass on the field)
Qualitative observations -data observed and described (the grass smelled fresh, felt soft, and was dark green)
Inferences are predictions; predictions are not facts, they are assumptions.
The dog is barking at me, so it must not like me (this is an inference, you can not prove the dog doesn't like you).
If you have 80 skittles and 12 of them are red, what % of the skittles are red?
12/80 X 100 = 15%
If you have 80 skittles and 12 of them are red, then 15% of them are red. Calculate how many degrees that percent is for a circle graph.
12/80 X 360 = 54
What is a line graph used for?
To compare two variables
Which axis is the independent/manipulated variable graphed on?
the X axis
Which axis is the dependent/responding variable graphed on?
the Y axis
What kind of information does a bar graph commonly display?
Information collected by counting
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

State the Problem....
Will coconut juice make the amount of green slime decrease?
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

Make a Hypothesis.....
If coconut juice is sprayed on the green slime in the shower, then the amount of green slime will decrease
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

What is the control group?.....
The half of the shower he does not spray with coconut juice
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

What is the independent/manipulated variable?
The coconut juice
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

What is the dependent/responding variable?
The appearance/amount of the green slime
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

That should Homer's conclusion be?
The coconut juice did not decrease the amount of green slime or change its appearance
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

What are the constant variables ?
-Spraying both sides of the shower at the same time
-Spraying both sides of the shower with equal amounts of either water or coconut juice
How many independent variables should a controlled experiment have?
1
Do all experiments require the same number of trials? Why is it a good idea to conduct multiple trials?
All experiments do not require the same number of trials; the more trials gives you more accurate results
Once an experiment is concluded and the results analyzed, what must a scientist do?
Communicate the results and draw a conclusion
An experiment was conducted to see if rats respond to extra vitamin A. Group A was given a Vitamin A pill while Group B receives an empty pill. The group receiving the empty pill serves as a ___________ _____________.
Control group
What is the final step of the scientific method?
Conclusion
Scientists organize and record data by using_________________________.
Charts, graphs & data tables
Lisa wants to see if the amount of water given to 2 lima bean plants will make them grow taller so she varies the amount of water each receives. They are each planted in the same type of pot, in the same soil, and receive the same amount of light. What are the constants in this experiment?
Same Pot, soil and light
Lisa plans a science experiment seeing how mice respond to different amounts of light. Mouse A receives light for 2 hours a day. Mouse B receives light for 6 hours a day. Mouse C receives light for 18 hours a day. They all receive the same amount of food, water and living space. Identify the PROBLEM for this experiment.
How does different amount of light effect mice?
Lisa plans a science experiment seeing how mice respond to different amounts of light. Mouse A receives light for 2 hours a day. Mouse B receives light for 6 hours a day. Mouse C receives light for 18 hours a day. They all receive the same amount of food, water and living space. Identify the HYPOTHESIS for this experiment.
If mice are given smaller amounts of light than they are used to, then they will sleep more and eat less
Lisa plans a science experiment seeing how mice respond to different amounts of light. Mouse A receives light for 2 hours a day. Mouse B receives light for 6 hours a day. Mouse C receives light for 18 hours a day. They all receive the same amount of food, water and living space. Identify the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE for this experiment.
Light
Lisa plans a science experiment seeing how mice respond to different amounts of light. Mouse A receives light for 2 hours a day. Mouse B receives light for 6 hours a day. Mouse C receives light for 18 hours a day. They all receive the same amount of food, water and living space. Identify the DEPENDENT VARIABLE for this experiment
The way the mouse responds
Lisa plans a science experiment seeing how mice respond to different amounts of light. Mouse A receives light for 2 hours a day. Mouse B receives light for 6 hours a day. Mouse C receives light for 18 hours a day. They all receive the same amount of food, water and living space. Identify the CONSTANTS for this experiment.
Amount of food, water, and living space
The liquid in the beaker is clear. This is an example of an _________________.
Observation
The liquid in the beaker is water because it is clear. This is an example of an ______________.
Inference
You have collected information by counting. What type of graph would best represent the data?
Bar graph
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