Brain Regions and Functions
Terms in this set (28)
Located at the skull's rear, is the lowest portion of the brain. The three main parts are the medulla, cerebellum, and pons.
begins where the spinal cord enters the skull. This structure controls many vital functions, such as breathing and heart rate. It also regulates our reflexes.
extends from the rear of the hindbrain, just above the medulla. It consists of two rounded structures thought to play important roles in motor coordination
A bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem. It contains several clusters of fibers involved in sleep and arousal.
includes much of the hindbrain (except cerebellum) and the midbrain. This connects with the spinal cord at its lower end and then extends upward to encase the reticular formation in the midbrain. The most ancient part of the brain, the it evolved more than 500 million years ago. Clumps of cells in it determine alertness and regulate basic survival functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.
Located between the hindbrain and forebrain. In particular, this relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears
a diffuse collection of neurons involved in stereotyped patterns of behavior such as walking, sleeping, and turning to attend to a sudden noise.
The most important structures are the limbic system, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex.
a loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex, is important in both memory and emotion. Its two principal structures are the amygdala and the hippocampus
an almond-shaped structure located inside the brain toward the base. This is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism's survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals.
has a special role in the storage of memories. Individuals who suffer extensive damage to this cannot retain any new conscious memories after the damage.
a forebrain structure that sits at the top of the brain stem in the central core of the brain. It serves as a very important relay station, functioning much like a server in a computer network. That is, an important function of this is to sort information and send it to the appropriate places in the forebrain for further integration and interpretation
work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements.
a small forebrain structure just below the thalamus, monitors three pleasurable activities—eating, drinking, and sex—as well as emotion, stress, and reward.
part of the forebrain and is the most recently developed part of the brain in the evolutionary scheme. This is the outer layer of the brain. It is where the most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning, take place.
is the outermost part of the cerebral cortex. In humans, this area makes up 80 percent of the cortex (compared with just 30 to 40 percent in most other mammals). Some scientists theorize that this part of the human brain, which is responsible for high-level thinking, evolved so that we could figure each other out
located at the back of the head, respond to visual stimuli.
the part of the cerebral cortex just above the ears, are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory.
the portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, are involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.
Located at the top and toward the rear of the head, are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control.
processes information about body sensations. It is located at the front of the parietal lobes.
just behind the frontal lobes, processes information about voluntary movement.
Embedded in the brain's lobes, the association cortex makes up 75 percent of the cerebral cortex. Processing information about sensory input and motor output is not all that is taking place in the cerebral cortex. This is the region of the cerebral cortex that integrates this information.
Located in the brain's left hemisphere, and it is involved in the control of speech.
The portion of the left hemisphere that is involved in understanding language.
The large bundle of axons that connects the brain's two hemispheres, has something to do with relaying information between the two sides.
Speech and grammar are localized in this hemisphere
Dominates in processing nonverbal information such as spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion.