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Chapter 21: Local Area Networking (comptia A+ cert)
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Terms in this set (62)
What is the software that takes incoming data received by the network card, organizes it, sends it to the app that needs it, then takes outgoing data and hands it back to the NIC to be sent out over the network?
TCP/IP is a type of this
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
What is the primary protocol of most modern networks, including the internet? This must be loaded and configured correctly to access the internet.
In a TCP/IP network, what identifies the node and network for a specific computer?
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
What is the addressing scheme that consists of four sets of binary numbers, each set separated by a period?
What is the value used by the NIC to distinguish what part of the IP address identifies the network ID and which part of the IP address identifies the host?
Blocks out the network portion of an IP address
Network ID is 192.168.4 (the first 3 sets)
Host ID is 33 (the last set, not blocked by Subnet Mask)
IP Address 192.168.4.33
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
What is the network ID and what is the host ID?
What is it called when 2 or more computers on a network have identical IP addresses and therefore cannot communicate with one another?
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
What is the Subnet Masking system that replaced classes? It is referred to by the number of 1's in the mask (1's mask the network ID)
For example: 255.255.255.0 would be
referred to as /24 (whack twenty-four)
/20 (whack 20)
What would be the name of this Subnet Mask?
Allows for 2^12 - 2 unique addresses
/20 (indicates the number of 1's in the mask, which mask network IDs)
Which Subnet Mask would allow for more unique network IDs, /24 or /20?
2^(number of 0's present) - 2
How do you calculate the number of unique addresses a CIDR's Subnet Mask can support?
What device has 2 IP addresses? One that connects to your LAN's switch and one that connects to the "next network" (ISP, neighbor, etc)
What is the IP address of the LAN side of the router that the computer uses to send data to anything outside your network ID called?
Domain Name Service (DNS)
What is the service (on a server) that saves IP addresses to specific computers/locations? If these didn't exist, we would have to type the specific IP address of any website to visit them
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
On most networks,what allows IP addresses to be obtained automatically and assigns a new PC connected to the network with a unique IP address?
Also known as "Dynamic IP addressing"
Static IP Address
What is the name of an IP address that is put in manually and stays that way until changed?
What is the correction oriented protocol / the correctionless protocol?
The people who developed the applications decide which protocol to use.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol, correction-oriented)
What protocol does the web browser HTTP protocol use?
Over 95% of TCP/IP applications use this
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
What is the "fire and forget" protocol? It is used when you can afford to lose some data (e.g., a couple frames of video), or when data loss has a low chance of happening (local network). It is much faster.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
What is the protocol/language of the world wide web?
What is the command line command used to see if your PC communicates with another IP address or DNS?
ipconfig /all (or just ifconfig in Mac/Linux)
What is the command line command used to see all of your TCP/IP settings?
What is the command-line command used to determine what info the DNS server is giving you about a specific host name?
tracert (traceroute for Mac/Linux)
What is the command line command used to show the route that a packet takes to get to its destination?
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
What is the modern OS feature that automatically assigns an IP address to the system when the client cannot obtain an IP address automatically?
169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254
What range of IP addresses does the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) assign for the APIPA feature?
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
What is the IP addressing scheme that extends the 32-bit IP address to 128 bits, allowing for many more IP addresses to be assigned? This system is slowly overtaking the old version
What is this an example of?
Can also be written "FEDC::CF:0:BA98:1234/64"
Which of three address assigned to every PC uses IPv6?
Always starts with FE80
Extended Unique Identifier-64 (EUI-64)
How do Mac/Linux create IPv6 IP addresses
(Windows uses random numbers)?
Which address assigned to a PC using IPv6
determines the specific prefix of a PC by communicating with the router, then creates the rest of the IP address from that?
This address is required to access the internet
Which address assigned to a PC using IPv6
does not stay in place all the time and changes to make your PC harder to track via IP address?
Router Solicitation (message)
What does a IPv6 capable computer send to the router as it boots, in order to determine an IP address? (always sent as "FF02::2")
What is the (software) interface that allows the PC to speak to the protocol (e.g., TCP/IP)?
Full-Duplex (half-duplex - only send or receive, not both at once)
What NIC mode allows the NIC to send AND receive signals simultaneously?
Network Interface Card (NIC)
What piece of physical hardware connects the computer to a network or network media?
Modern MOBOs have these built in
What are LED lights on an NIC which gives information about the NIC connection status called?
What lights that turn on when the NIC detects network traffic? For example, when transferring a file from one PC to another across a network, you should see this light flicker.
What is a feature of an NIC that allows a PC to be booted up via network connections? Another PC is required to do so.
What does the PC send repeatedly to the NIC of a sleeping/powered down PC to turn it on (i.e., Wake-on-LAN)?
Quality of Service (QoS)
What setting enables busy networks to prioritize traffic?
Which permissions only apply to network sharing and resources? As opposed to NTFS permissions, which affect both network and local resources
Which default network organization designation, for a Windows PC, allows all PCs/users with this designation to have equal access to network resources (e.g., printers, shared folders, etc)?
What network organization designation is made for larger networks that need more control?
Requires a specific server to control access to the network's resources (and can track user, resources, and user permissions)
What is a machine called that creates a domain on the Windows Server system, which allows the system administrator to add domain accounts (users that can log in to the Domain and access the resources)?
What is the command-line command used to manage Domains?
What feature of a Domain designated PC/network allows users to log in from any computer with the same Domain account?
Which Network organization designation provides little/no security and requires lots of signing on to access resources?
Shares Libraries on the network for easy data access (NOT specific folders)
Requires the IPv6 protocol
Not available on Mac/Linux systems
1. Check the cables (are the all plugged in and activity lights active?)
2. Is the NIC disabled in Device Manager?
What are a couple initial steps you can take to troubleshoot a "network down" issue?
What is a diagnostic test for the NIC called? Sends data out and checks if it successfully returns
What cable performs an external loopback test and checks if the NIC is working properly?
Midrange Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR)
What Physical tool is used to diagnose bad horizontal cabling runs and measures any impedance in the cables (if there is impedance, there's something wrong with the cable)
(e.g., Fluke Microscanner)?
What is the generic term for two devices that are used together - the Tone Generator and the Tone Probe?
Commonly referred to as "Fox and Hound", which refers to a specific popular model of this
What is the physical tool that connects to a cable using alligator clips and sends an electrical signal along the wire at a certain frequency?
What is the Physical tool that emits a sound when it is placed near a cable connected to the tone generator?
The Tone Generator is placed on one end of the cable, and the this is placed on the other end.
Very useful for the transmission room for a business, which may house hundreds of cables.
1. Do you have the right username/pass? If not, ask for it
2. Make sure you have the correct permissions on your user account
3. Make sure you are in the correct Workgroup/Domain/Homegroup
4. Make sure the resource is actually shared
5. Make sure the folder/resource still exists
6. If it is an external device (e.g., printer), make sure its connected to the network physically
What are a few steps to check when you fail to connect to any resource on the network?
What is the command-line command used to enable the user to view a network quickly?
nbstat (NetBIOS over TCP/IP Statistics)
What is the old command-line command used to allow Windows to resolve host names on the network when a DNS server is not available?
What command line commands remove an IP address and then assign a new one?
net view \\fileserver
What is the command line command used to view all network shares mapped to your computer?
What nbstat command is used to view cached names on a network?
What command shows a list of all computers on the network?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
220-901 A+ Speeds & Ranges
Installing and Configuring a Wireless Router
Chapter 09: Hard Drive Technologies
Ch. 21: Local Area Network
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