Sociology: chapter 6 and 7 test

One-way experience
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Terms in this set (208)
Agent of SocializationPresents common, standardized view of culture; Provides a collective experience for members of society;Using television/technology as a babysitter Violence in media Mortal Combat, Call of Duty, GTAConcerns for Agent of Socializationagents of socializationprovides: Increase social cohesion Example: 1st generation immigrant not only learns about American events and culture by reading the news, but also learns the language.Human sexuality and violence SanctionsSocial norms Reaffirm proper behavior like?Human sexuality and violence; cyberbullyingGlorify disapproved or abnormal behavior of social normsConferral of StatusSingle out one from thousands of other similarly placed issues or people; Makes the issue or individual significant; positive or negativeHyperconsumerismpractice of buying more than we need, often more than we can affordCommercial Messagingchildren view more than 20,000 commercials yearlyProduct placementadvertising that occurs within movies and television showsProduct placementexample: Mercedes, BMW, Starbucks, NikeFunctions of AdvertisingSupports economy, provides information, underwrites the cost of the mediaDysfunctioncreates a consumer culture based in unrealistic expectations and unreal needsDysfunction of MediaNarcotizing EffectNarcotizing dysfunctionthe phenomenon in which the media provide such massive amounts of information that the audience becomes numb and fails to act of the informationNarcotizing dysfunctionResults from addiction to screen timeNarcotizing dysfunctionSee the same information so much we become desensitized to Crime, explicit sexual situations, violence, war, disease, natural disastersConflict PerspectiveGatekeepingGatekeepingMedia reflect and exacerbate division in society and globallyGatekeepingcontrolling information because material must travel through a series of checkpoints before reaching the publicREAL POWER OF THE MEDIAcontrol what is presentedgatekeepingLess control on the internet but restrictions still existConflict PerspectiveMedia MonitoringMedia monitoringinterest groups monitor media contentMedia monitoringGovernment monitoring individual citizens' communications without our knowledgeMedia monitoringexample: McCarthyism and Red Scare-1950s; Homeland Security-USA Patriot ActMedia monitoringParental monitoring of children's media use and communicationConflict PerspectiveConstructing RealityConstructing RealityMass media maintains the privileges of some groups forDominant ideologyset of cultural beliefs and practices that help maintain powerful social, economic, and political interestsDominant ideologyexample: Transmit messages that define reality; Power structured around race, gender, and social classCultural authoritythe probability that certain definitions and meanings about reality are accepted as valid and trueStereotypesunreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the groupMinoritygroups are often misrepresented, or not represented, and show in roles that are stereotypesConstructing RealityDistorts the political processConstructing RealityCandidates with the most money and resources get more media representations shaping issuesConflict PerspectiveWhose CultureUS mediamost powerful global influencerus mediaPop cultureother countriesMany US programs have roots in shows that originated inwhose cultureexample: Survivor, American Idol, Iron Chef, Big BrotherHyper-local mediareporting that is highly locallocalHyper- local media shifts the development of values to______ communities and neighborhoodslimit cultural invasionCultural domination by more powerful nations like the US lead to nations seeking toDeveloping nationsimproved two-way flow of news and informationMisrepresentedimages and news based in stereotypes and half-truthsDigital dividethe lack of access to the latest technologiesConflict PerspectiveThe Digital DivideThe Digital DivideExample: low-income families Rural areas Developing and underdeveloped countries Racial and ethnic minority groups Internet and new media technology-essential to social and economic successInteractionist PerspectiveMicro level analysisInteractionist PerspectiveExamine how day-to-day behaviors and social interactions are shaped by mediasocial capitalInteractionist Perspective view mass media in context of _______ ________: collective benefit of social networks built on reciprocal trustsocial capitalConstant connection to others; Facilitate new ties and social networks-local, national, globalinteractionist perspectiveNew ways of promoting consumptionFacilitates_________ new forms of communication and social interactionnew forms of communicationexample: Online dating Snapping & streaksextremists; terroristsInteractionist, new platform for groups such as_______ and_______ to organize, spread messages, and recruit new membersinteractionist perspectivemajor concerns: Pornography Abuse of minors AddictionEgocastingpersonal management of media exposure to avoid messages and information one does not like or agree.EgocastingLead to less tolerance; Contribute to ethnocentrismAudienceis a necessary componentAudienceCan be large or small; hard to identify or easily identifiableSecondary groupaudience at a rock concert;Primary groupbest friends watching a movieMicrosociologyWho joins specific dating sites? Or, how the audience responds to the mediaMacrosociologyexamine social consequences of the overexposure to sexual content or violence in the media for adolescenceAudience membersare distinguished by social determinants: race, gender, income, political party, religion, education level, and ageThe Segmented AudienceMedia market themselves to particular audiencesThe Segmented AudienceIdentify the audience Target the audienceThe Segmented AudienceUse survey research to identify the audience; Specialization driven by advertisingAudience BehaviorHow do audience members interact with one another? How do they share information after a media event? -Fan pages -Blogs -Twitter -InstagramOpinion leadersomeone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day contact and communicationAudienceis not passiveGlobal Villagepeople connected across the world via mediaGlobal torrentthe media permeate all aspects of everyday lifeGlobal torrentNot all nations are equally connected; Some forms of technology not equally available across the globeMedia-Criticalin developing NationsMedia-CriticalMonitoring individual's personal communications for national reasonsMedia-CriticalNational safety and public health Text messages monitored in Kenya to track Malaria outbreak Monitoring text messages and phone conversations by US government for national safety-counter-terrorismSocial Policy & the Mass MediaThe Right to PrivacyThe Right to PrivacyIs privacy a possibility in the postmodern digital age? Can ordinary citizens expect to have their privacy protected?Big Datathe rapid collection & analysis of enormous amounts of information by supercomputersvaluable resourceOrganizations that control this data control abig data, the right to privacyFears about threats to personal privacy, misuse of gathered data, crime and censorshipCulture lagperiod of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture is struggling to adapt to new material cultureCulture lagInnovative technology versus right to privacyDeviancebehavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or societyDevianceViolation of common social norms; Subjective within a culture and across cultures and across timeDeviancecan be both positive and negative-produce positive and negative changesStigma(Erving Goffman)the labels society use to devalue members of certain groupsstigmatizationNot all deviance leads tostigmatizedMental Health issues are oftenStigmascan become part of the Master Status for peopleBeauty Mythexaggerated ideal of beauty, beyond the reach of all but a few females (and males) and has unfortunate consequencesBeauty MythCreates body image problems and unrealistic self-imagesStigma symbolitems or meanings that draw attention to negative aspects of a person's lifeStigma symbolCriminal record, home in a "ghetto" or beat up carPrestige symbolitems or meanings that draw attention to positive aspects of a person's lifePrestige symbolWedding bands, home in an upscale neighborhood, brand namesSocial Controltechniques and strategies for preventing deviant behaviorSocial ControlOccurs at all levels of societySocial Controlexamples: -Parents-socialized to obey parents-teach us to defer to authority figures -Peer groups-introduce us to informal norms -Colleges- establish standards that socialize us for future roles -Bureaucratic organizations-formal systems of rules, regulations, and sanctions -Government-legislates and enforces formal social norms and sanctionssocial controlThe stronger the ________ ________, the more cohesive the society (functionalism)conflict and division (conflict theory)Strong degrees of social control creates what?Sanctionspenalties and rewards for conduct concerning social normssocial controlCan be formal and informalsocial controlProblematic due to conflicting messagesproblematic social controlExample: Laws regulating drug and alcohol use versus folkways among subculturesPeers and Authority figuresMechanisms of social control-group and societal levels like?Authority figuresinfluence the way we behave and what believe to be normal and abnormalConformity and ObedienceStanley Milgram (1975)Conformitygoing along with peers (they have no real control or right over our individual behavior)Obediencecompliance with higher authority in a hierarchical structure through acceptance or acquiescenceThe Milgram ExperimentWill obey authority despite moral objections?yaleThe Milgram Experiment was done at what universityInvestigate the effects of punishment on learningThe Milgram Experiment purposeThe Milgram ExperimentSubjects told they were randomly assigned to roles of "learner" and "teacher"The Milgram ExperimentAll subjects were assigned the role of teacher while the learner was a member of the research team/actorPeople would not continue to harm othersThe Milgram Experiment Predictionkey to obedience is the individual's perception of authority; what is there position in the hierarchy of powerThe Milgram Experiment ConclusionsModern Industrial societyindividuals are used to submitting to impersonal authority figuresModern Industrial societyShift responsibility to the authority figure Example: think about the behavior of soldiers during war timeInformal social controlcasual methods used to enforce normsInformal social controlexample: Smile/frown, laughter/scowl/raised eyebrows, clapping/booing/silenceFormal social controlauthorized methods used to enforce normsFormal social controlCarried out by authorized agentsUndermine formal social control and binge drinkingInformal social control contributes to conflicting messages like?Lawsregulations to promote or allow governmental social controllawsCreated and enforced when norms are so important they are formalized intolawsCreation of _____--social processLawsare not fixed and staticlaws not being fixedReflect continually changing standards of what is accepted as right or wrong; how violations are determined; and sanctions to be applied is an example of?Control Theoryconnection to members of society leads to people systematically conforming to society's dominant normsControl Theoryexample: People are socialized to want to belong and to fear not belonging to social groupsFunctionalismsociety exerts real control over individuals and groups; the more integrated to the dominant norms individuals are the more cohesive and stable society isSociological perspective: Spiritual/faith-based; biological reductionism; socialEarly Explanations to Contemporary Theories include?Biological-biological reductionismthe attempt to reduce all conditions to biological causes; geneticÉmile DurkheimFunctionalismSanctionsestablished within a culture help define acceptable behaviorSanctionsContribute to social stabilitySanctionshelp integrate individuals to social normstake advantage and push limits of what constitutes appropriate and acceptable behaviorsLack of sanctions or enforcement of sanctions might encourage individuals toAnomie"state of normlessness;" the loss of direction felt in society when social control of members is ineffectiveAnomieOccurs during periods of major social change and disorderAnomieLess consensus about what constitutes normal and appropriate behaviorsAnomie theory of devianceadaptation of culturally established goals or the established means to achieve such goals, or a combination of bothMembers of society adapt either by conforming or by degrees of deviationDo members of society accept established norms or goals of society? Do members accept the established means to achieve the norms or goals?Functionalismexample: US Cultural Goal-"success" Means-very prescriptiveConformist (non deviant); Retreats; Innovator; Ritualist; RebelAnomie Theory of Deviance: Five AdaptationsConformist (nondeviant)accepts both goals and the use of approved means (yes; yes)Retreatistwithdraws from goals and the use of approved means (no; no)Innovatoraccepts goals of society but pursues them using unapproved/improper means (yes; no)Ritualistabandons goals of society, but is compulsively committed to approved means (no; yes)Rebelis alienated from both the goals of society and the approved means for achieving them (no; no)Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950)arguing against biological determinism and biological reductionismsocial situationsALL behavior is learned inCultural transmissionschool of thought emphasizing that criminal behavior (deviant behavior) is learned through social interactionsCultural transmissionIncludes not only the HOW but also the REASONING or LOGIC behind the behaviorDifferential associationthe process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal (deviant) acts leads to the violation of rulesDifferential associationBehavior, including improper behavior, is the result of socialization through the groups to which one belongsHoward BeckerInteractionism: Labeling Theorymales and female having multiple sex partnersWhy some people are viewed as deviant while others participating in similar behaviors are notbehaviorsDefining ________ is subjective process dependent upon cultural processes and perceptionfixed and objectiveAccepted norms and definitions of acceptable and appropriate are notInteractionism: Labeling TheoryEmphasizes how a person comes to be labeled as deviant and/or how they come to accept itDefinitionschange over time & vary from society to societyLabeling Theoryexample: Homosexuality used to be viewed as a mental illnessSocial positioninfluences how labels are appliedLabeling Theoryexamples: Substance use & abuse are labeled differently-alcoholic versus prescription drug user or street drug userFocus on agents of social controli.e., teachers, police, judges, lawyers, clergy, employers, school administrators, probation officers, physiciansagents of social controlDetermine which behaviors are considered normal, appropriate, and acceptable and which are notlabeling and agents of social controlRacial and Gender Profiling Substance use/abuse Mental health conditionsConflict PerspectiveDeviance is defined by people and groups in powerConflict Perspective"Criminal law does not represent a consistent application of social values, but instead reflects completing values and interests"Differential justicedifferences in the way social control is exercised over different groups puts members of racial and ethnic minority groups at a disadvantageRichard QuinneyCriminal justice system serves interests of powerful in US societyCrimea definition of conduct created by authorized agents of social control in a politically organized societyCrimeLegislators and law enforcementRichard QuinneyLaw and legislation are attempts by the powerful in society to coerce the less powerful into their moralityCrimea violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal sanctions/penaltiesCriminal Justice Categoriesseverity of the offense; potential punishment; severity of the offense; court with jurisdictionSociologyclassify crimes in terms of how they are committed and how society views the offenses-Victimless Crime -Professional Crime -Organized Crime -White-collar & Technology-based Crime -Hate Crime -Transnational CrimeSix Categories of crimeVictimless Crimewilling exchange among adults of widely desired but illegal goods and servicesVictimless CrimeExample: Drug purchase and use; Prostitution -Is there really such a thing as victimless crime? -Should "victimless crimes" be decriminalized? -Who has the power to define an act as a crime or as victimless?Professional Crimecrime committed by a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupationOrganized Crimework of a hierarchical group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprisesOrganized Crimeexamples: Allocates territory; price controls; arbitrates internal disputes Infiltrates legitimate businesses Corrupts members of law enforcement; city, state, and national leaders Serve as means of upward mobility for people trying to escape poverty Ethnic succession The Mob, The Cartel, GangsWhite-collar Crimeillegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often affluent, "respectable" peopleWhite-collar CrimeMartha StewartCorporate Crimeany act by a corporation that is punishable by the governmentCorporate Crimeexample: Insider tradingCybercrimeillegal activity primarily conducted through the use of computer hardware of softwareCybercrimeexample: Identity theftHate Crimeoffender is motivated by the victim's race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, sexual orientation; and evidence shows hatred prompted offender actionHate Crime Statistics Act (1990)The torture and murder of James Byrd Jr., the torture of mentally ill teen in ChicagoTransnational Crimecrime that occurs across multiple national borders; globalTransnational Crimeexample: Human traffickingOrganized crime and Technological crimeOther categories of crime are incorporated with transnational crime including?