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Unit 4 Inheritance of Traits, Per. 1, Randall, Dillon
Terms in this set (50)
a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.
a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base. They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
a colorless crystalline compound with basic properties.
parallel but moving or oriented in opposite directions.
Base Pairing Rules
A with T: the purine adenine (A) always pairs with. the pyrimidine thymine (T)
C with G: the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with. the purine guanine (G)
either of the two chains that make up a double helix of DNA, with corresponding positions on the two chains being composed of a pair of complementary bases. 2. a section of one nucleic acid chain that is bonded to another by a sequence of base pairs.
the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells. ... Conservative replication would leave the two original template DNA strands together in a double helix and would produce a copy composed of two new strands containing all of the new DNA base pairs.
ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
a carbohydrate with the formula C₅H₁₀O₅; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide with linear form H−−(CHOH)₄−H, which has all the hydroxyl groups on the same side in the Fischer projection.
a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RNA. In DNA its place is taken by thymine.
a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
an atomic or molecular state characterized by two unpaired electrons with parallel spins.
a group of three associated lines close together in a spectrum or electrophoretic gel.
a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
(in informal use) a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Base Substitutions (point mutations)
a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA. Point mutations have a variety of effects on the downstream protein product—consequences that are moderately predictable based upon the specifics of the mutation.
mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.
a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three. ... The earlier in the sequence the deletion or insertion occurs, the more altered the protein.
the loss or excision of a section of genetic code, or its product, from a nucleic acid or protein sequence.
the addition of extra DNA or RNA into a section of genetic material.
an evolutionary hypothesis which proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving ...
a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes). In most higher organisms, one sex (male) produces a small motile gamete that travels to fuse with a larger stationary gamete produced by the other (female).
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
the female reproductive cell in animals and plants; an ovum.
the male reproductive cell
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
(of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
one of the pair is derived from the mother and the other from the father. The maternal and paternal chromosomes in a homologous pair have the same genes at the same loci, but possibly different alleles.
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
the principle, originated by Gregor Mendel, stating that when two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together.
the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents, i.e., when not masked by a dominant characteristic inherited from one parent.
relating to or denoting heritable characteristics that are controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring even when inherited from only one parent.
individuals who are homozygous for a certain gene carry two copies of the same allele. individuals who are heterozygous for a certain gene carry two different alleles.
Alternative forms of a given gene are called alleles, and they can be dominant or recessive. When an individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive, they are homozygous.
the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
if it carries two copies of the same dominant allele, or homozygous recessive, if it carries two copies of the same recessive allele. Heterozygous means that an organism has two different alleles of a gene.
a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes. It is referred to by two capital letters (XX) for a dominant trait, and two lowercase letters (xx) for a recessive trait.
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