Sumer: developed distinct city-states, palaces, temples, walls all dominated cities, tried to develop order far beyond the city states, Sargon of Akkad captured many Mesopotamian cities and forced citizens to help provide food, shelter, and financial support to those captured cities.
Babylon: Took over Sumer, Hammurabi, improved Sargon's administrative techniques, developed a more efficient government, made a strict law code with high standards for everyone to follow.
Assyria: Took over Babylon, extended authority gradualy to southwest Asia, made use of iron weapons, continued administrative techniques used by Babyloninans, preserved literature in huge libraries, brought wealth, comfort, and sophistication to Mesopotamia.
New Babylon: Very wealthy, enormous palaces and temples.
A conquerer named Menes unified the early Egyptian empire, during the Old Kingdom, great pharaohs would have slaves build great pyramids for final tombs when they died, Egypt had strong interests in Nubia, they thought Nubia would threaten Upper Egypt, and they looked to Nubia for many precious materials, then the Hyksos, which had far surperior technology to Egypt, invaded Egypt and captured Memphis; Egypt adopted the Hyksos' bronze weapons and chariots, and eventually drove them out; In the New Kingdom, pharaohs attempted to expand their borders to places that may pose threats for them in the future, so eventually they became the dominant force along the eastern Medditeranean and the Nile, then the Assyrians came and Egypt fell to their forein invaders. As cities arose, people were able to increase their skills very diversely, some things such as: mettalurgy, pottery, textile making, etc; specifically shipmaking allowed Egypt to explore vast amounts of area; in Egypt and Nubia, the vast specialization of trade engouraged the formation of long distance transportation and trade, Egypt especially because they had very little natural resources other than the Nile; writting in Egypt might have appeared from Mesopotamian influences, it was pictographic, but soon replaced it with symbols showing sounds and ideas, people called them heiroglyphs, meaning holy inscriptions. Amon and Re: Egyptians believed that deities played major roles in their civilization; Amon was associated with the sun, creation, fertility, and reproductive forces, they later honored the gods together under the religion of Amon-Re.
Aten: Pharoah Amenhotep IV created a monotheistic version of Amon-Re, Aten, he considered him as one god upon many, but when the pharoah died, the "rule" of Amon-Re swiftly became the norm again.
Mummification: Egyptians believed that after you died, you went to the afterlife; so they mummified dead by preserving their bodies and wrapping them in cloth, and putting them in tombs with belongings that they would take to the afterlife with them.
Osiris: The god of the underworld, Osiris was associated with the flooding Nile and crops, both which grew and died of sorts, he determined who could be immortal after death, he would weigh the dead's hearts with a feather, a light heart would get immortality, a heavy heart would not.
A well defined social order, tried to maintain order and stability such as in other societies. Social distinctions between individuals and groups, determined their roles in society; probably started simple, farmers, warriors, etc.; later the four main caste catagories were: priests, warriors and aristocrats, cultivators and merchants, peasents, and untouchables; patriarchal society didn't really evolve, since most of the upper class people were men anyway. Mandate of Heaven: The Zhou dynasty introduced this, basically the gods gave power to a king, and he would do good things for his empire, set a good example, but when further kings would start doing bad things, the gods would set upon them rebellions, floods, etc.
Political Organization: Since the dynasty was much larger than the Shang, the Zhou leaders would entrust power to other people, trusting their loyalty to the leaders, though that eventually failed.
Social Order: Royal families and ruling nobles had the highest postitions in China. These people had control of lots of expensive bronze pieces. A class of hereditary aristocrafts emerged from allies of Shang and Zhou rulers. They possesed large land holdings, worked as administrative and military people.