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PHY 1455 Russell Test 2
Terms in this set (160)
A group of seismologists detects P-waves, but no S-waves, from a recent earthquake. What can they infer about the earthquake's location relative to their monitoring station?
D. The earthquake is on the other side of the earth from the station.
The strongest high tide, when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are aligned, is called:
A. Spring tide
What percent of the Earth's surface is covered in water?
What state had the largest earthquake in U.S. History?
Which gas appears the most in Earth's atmosphere?
The most likely explanation for the formation of the Moon is that...
A. The newly formed Earth was struck by a Mars-sized object; the core of the impacting body remained behind as part of the core of our planet, and debris splattered into space.
Why is the earth's core still hot?
A. Because the core is surrounded by a lot of rock which acts as an insulator
B. Because of natural radioactive decay
(A and B)
What layer of Earth contains the solid continents and the sea-floor?
The critical part of the atmosphere for protecting life on the ground from excessive ultraviolet radiation is the:
A. Ozone layer
Describing the earth's interior, scientists say that it is "differentiated". By using this term, they mean that:
B) The density increases as you descend downward towards the core
What is the main difference between asteroids and meteoroids?
B. Asteroids are more than 100 m in diameter; anything smaller is a meteroid
Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt.
What is exoplanet?
Planet that is outside the solar system.
How do comets shine?
B. Reflected light
Astronomers generally estimate asteroid sizes by ___________
A. Observing the given asteroid as it passes in front of a star
C. The amount of sunlight they reflect and the heat they radiate
(A and C)
Which of these is not a component of a comet?
E. Light tail
What is the most used way to identify an exoplanet?
B. Transit method
Which of the following is NOT true about the coma of a comet?
C. Most of the comet's mass can be found here
The nucleus of a comet...
C. Has an irregular shape
What is the main difference between a comet's ion tail compared to a comet's dust tail?
C. An ion tail will be straight and linear, while a dust tail will be broad and gently curved.
Which of Jupiter's moons has the largest mass?
What type of planet is Jupiter?
How long is Jupiter's rotational period?
A. 10 Hours
What is the largest satellite in our solar system?
Jupiter's magnetosphere is roughly ____ times of the planet itself
Out of the 4 Galilean Moons, which has the highest density?
Which of the following does not contribute to Jupiter's colors?
A. Molecular hydrogen
D. Water Vapor
(Answer is E (all))
Jupiter has the shortest day of all the planets.
Which of the Jovian moons is the most geologically active?
How many Earths can be placed inside the Great Red Spot?
There is the possibility of liquid water on Europa and Ganymede.
What is Jupiter's big red spot?
B. a hurricane like storm
What is the name of the largest Volcano on the surface of Io?
The banded structure of Jupiters Atmosphere is described to consist of a series of?
A. lighter colored zones, darker belts
How many earths would it take to fill up jupiter?
What is Jupiter's most abundant gas?
C. Molecular Hydrogen
Jupiter has a series of low-pressure regions in its atmosphere where gas flows downward, and also a series of high-pressure regions in its atmosphere where gas flows upward.
How many moons circle around Mars?
If you were to look at the sun standing on Mars what would it look like compared to how we see it on earth?
A. half the size
Mars is known for having the largest known volcanoes in the solar system. The largest of these, named ____________, is nearly three times taller than Mt. Everest.
B. Olympus Mons
What is the percentage of gravity that mars has compared to earth?
B. One Third the gravity
Where is the Valles Marineris located?
What compound is the Martian atmosphere primarily composed of?
B. Carbon Dioxide
What are the polar caps of Mars primarily made of?
B. Carbon Dioxide
Which of the following is not a feature of Mars?
C. It has a very thick atmosphere
What are the names of Mars' two moons?
D. Phobos and Deimos
What kind of weather can be found on Mars?
B. Global dust storms
Mars' equator is inclined to the orbital plane at an angle of _____.
The atmosphere on Mars is 95% of what?
B. Carbon Dioxide
There is evidence of water on Mars?
Mars's Borealis Basin could be the result of one of the largest known impacts in the solar system.
Which of the following statements best describes runoff channels?
B. interconnecting systems resembling a river system
How long is a year on Mars?
D. 1 year and 320 days
Which planet has been found to have evidence for past presence of water on its surface?
What is the radius of Mars compared to the radius of the Earth?
C. 0.53 Earth's
What causes Mars's surface to have seasonal changes?
A. it's axial tilt and eccentric orbit
Which planet has virtually no atmosphere?
Which planet has huge cliffs thought to have formed as the planet cooled and contracted?
Which planet has the largest temperature range with a 600 K swing?
How does Mercury's magnetic field compare with Earth's?
D. 1/100 of Earth
Which Planet is most affected by the tidal effects of the sun?
Which planet's craters are less densely packed than their lunar counterparts, and have extensive intercrater plains?
Like the moon, Mercury's craters are the result of:
D. Meteoritic bombardment
How many moons does Mercury have?
What is the interior of Mercury?
A. 'cool', iron-rich core
How long is Mercury's solar day?
A. 2 Mercury years
Mercury is less dense than mars.
Where is Mercury
C. The innermost orbit in or solar system
E. The physical world is the allegorical shades and memes of the sun outside of the cave
(Either answer is acceptable)
Which planet is the Caloris Basin located on?
Which planet in our solar system has the most eccentric orbit and the greatest inclination?
Why doesn't Mercury have an atmosphere?
D. The planet is too close to the sun causing the particles of gasses to heat up and escape the gravitational pull of Mercury.
What is the Caloris Basin?
C. Large impact feature in Mercury
Mercury's orbit is an elliptical around the sun. The closest it gets to the sun is 29 million miles, but exactly how far away does it get?
C. 43 million miles
What is a synchronous orbit?
D. when the rotation period of a body is equal to its orbital period around another body
Why do we only see one side of the Moon from Earth?
B. Tidal Locking
What is the most important source of erosion on the Moon?
A. meteoritic impact
What is the surface temperature of the moon?
A. -233 to 123 °C
The Earth's Moon is the (blank) largest moon in the solar system.
Due to the Moon's weaker gravity, what percentage of a person's weight would there be on the surface compared to Earth?
The moon has a similar density to _____.
C. The earth's crust
What is the predicted central temperature of the Moon?
C. 1500 K
On the moon, the only place where water has been detected in significant amounts are:
c) On the floors of deep craters in the polar regions, as ice deposits that never thaw
What is regolith?
A. Lunar soil that is grey dust covering the surface
Which of the following features does the moon not have?
The differential force, the variation of the Moon's (or the Sun's) gravity across Earth is called?
A. Tidal Force
The light-colored, elevated regions of the moon were originally called:
This Latin word is what the first observers called the Moon's large and dark areas.
The missions that were meant to put a man on the moon were codenamed what?
What are planets having masses between 2 and 10 earth masses called?
Pluto is located in the Kuiper belt.
Which is Pluto's closest satellite?
What feature of Pluto's surface makes it less dense than some planets but denser than others?
B. It is covered in ice
How many dwarf planets are in the solar system?
In 2006, Pluto was reclassified as
C. a dwarf planet
What is Pluto's atmosphere composed mostly of?
What do Pluto and Triton have in common?
D. Origins in the Kuiper Belt
(Answer is all)
How many moons does Pluto have?
_____ was the astronomer who originally started searching for Pluto, but when he died, _____ continued his work and eventually discovered the location of Pluto.
B. Percival Lowell; Clyde Tombaugh
What is the density of Pluto?
A) 2000 kg/m^3
From the time it was discovered in 1930, it took until the ________ until an accurate measure of the mass of Pluto was determined?
Which of the following is NOT an officially recognized dwarf planet?
Which of these planets is the SMALLEST of the current category of dwarf planets?
What are icy dwarf planets beyond Neptune known as?
What is the criteria to be a planet that dwarf planets do not have?
C. They have not cleared the region near their orbit
Which of these dwarf planets is the most massive?
Saturn has a density low enough that enables it to float on water if placed in a big enough body of water.
Saturn's atmosphere is primarily composed of what two gasses?
C. Hydrogen and helium
What is Saturn's largest moon?
Saturn's troposphere is arranged in which three layers (in order of increasing depth)?
A. ammonia ice, ammonium hydrosulfide ice, water ice
Strong bursts of radio waves are often associated with Saturn's storms
Saturn's Mass is ____ times that of the earth
How is heat generated on Saturn?
C. Helium precipitation
What are Saturn's rings composed of?
C. Ice, dust and rock
How long is a year on Saturn?
C. 10,832 days
How large is Saturn compared to the rest of the planets in the planetary system?
B. 2nd largest
Which of these are Saturn's rings NOT mainly composed of?
Which of Saturn's moons is considered most suitable for life?
What is the stable pattern of eastward or westward wind flow on Saturn called?
B. Zonal flow
How many times greater is the radius of Saturn compared to Earth?
Saturn's Roche Limit lies just outside the outer edge of the C ring.
In 1997, NASA launched the Cassini mission to study what planet?
Compared to Jupiter, Saturn's atmosphere ___________.
B. is calmer with fewer disturbances or storms
There is a large impact crater on Saturn's moon Mimas, who is it named after?
How long is one day on Saturn?
C. 11 hours
Which of the following is not a terrestrial planet?
Uranus and Neptune's core is composed of...
A. Rocky material
British astronomer discovered the planet Uranus in what year?
How was Neptune initially discovered?
C. Observations of Uranus's orbit
Which astronomer discovered Uranus?
B. William Hershel
What makes Uranus Blue?
How far is Neptune from the Sun?
Uranus has a unique tilt of its rotation axis at _____ degrees:
C. 90 degrees
What is the 'Great Dark Spot' of Neptune?
B. A large storm system in the atmosphere, discovered in 1989, which lasted for 5 years
What is the most distant planet in the solar system?
What is unique about Triton compared to other large moons of the solar system?
C. Retrograde orbit
What made the orbit of Uranus seem to be incompatible with Kepler's Law of planetary motion?
B. The planet Neptune exerted some gravitational force on Uranus.
What precious gemstone rains down on Uranus due to the extreme pressures on the planet?
What is Neptune's surface Temperature?
D. 73 kelvin
Which of the following astronomers was involved with officially identifying Uranus' rings?
B: James L. Elliot
Which one of Uranus' moons has surface features that suggest it once broke apart and reformed?
Which gas makes up most of the atmosphere on Venus?
B. Carbon Dioxide
What is Aprhodite Terra?
C. Largest highlands on Venus
What are the clouds on Venus primarily comprised of?
A. sulfuric acid
What degree is Venus's axis tilt on?
Which planet has the most volcanoes?
What are the most common types of volcanoes found on the surface of Venus?
A. shield volcanoes
The largest volcanic structures on Venus are huge, roughly circular regions known as ________.
Venus is characterized by a very slow retrograde motion.
Venus gets very hot. It can reach temperatures up to _____.
D. 870 degrees fahrenheit
Why is Venus referred to as Earth's "sister planet"?
A. Their size is similar
B. They are similarly located
C. Both planets have a central core, a molten mantle and a crust.
(All of the above)
Which two gasses make up most of Venus' atmosphere?
C. CO2 and Nitrogen
How long is the rotation period of Venus?
A. 243 days
Describe the magnetic field of Venus
C. Venus does not have a magnetic field
What is Venus interior compose by?
B large hot iron rich core
Venus has a very slow retrograde motion.
What type of volcanoes is most common on Venus?
D. Shield Volcanoes
The clouds of Venus are on average _____km up from the ground.
What is the largest mountain on Venus?
D. Maxwell Montes
What is Venus' atmospheric pressure compared to Earth's?
What is the toxic chemical in the heat-trapping clouds that cover Venus?
D. Sulfuric Acid