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The New Kingdom - Chapter 3
Terms in this set (64)
What are the dates of the New Kingdom?
1500 to 1000 BC
What military gains did the Egyptians make in order to defeat the Hyksos?
1) Made durable weapons & shields of bronze 2) Made composite bow and battle ax 3) Chain armor 4) Lighter and more maneuverable chariots
Which prince from Thebes FIRST organized an powerful army and led it against the Hyksos?
What happened to Sequenenera and who was his successor?
Sequenenera was killed in a battle and his son Kamose was left to drive out the Hyksos.
Who succeeded Kamose?
Kamose's brother Ahmose took over and drove the Hyksos into Palestine where he annihilated them.
What did Ahmose do after he came back to Egypt?
He reunited Lower and Upper Egypt and reestablish the power of the central government. He also reconquered Nubia .
Which dynasty did Ahmose found?
The 18th dynasty which lasted for centuries.
The New Kingdom was characterized by a __________ spirit.
It had an aggressive spirit and became active aggressors who conquered peoples near their border.
What did the Hyksos invasion teach the Egyptians?
They realized they could no longer depend on the natural barriers to protect them from enemies.
What is the new role of the pharaoh in the New Kingdom?
He took active part in military battles and lead his army into battle.
Which country did Thutmose I conquer?
Syria-first imperial power in western Asia
What was another "first" for Thutmose I?
He was the first pharaoh to be buried in the rugged cliffs 1,000 feet above the Nile opposite of Thebes. (known as Valley of the Kings)
Who was Thutmose I's son?
Thutmose II- who died as a youth with no successor
Who was Thutmose II married to?
Who was Thutmose II succeeded by?
A 6-year-old son of one his other wives, Thutmose III
Who was the first female pharaoh?
How did she become so powerful?
1) Gained influence among officials 2) Sent the young king (Thutmose III) away to study with priests 3) Highly intelligent and ambitious
How long did Hatshepsut rule as a pharaoh?
Who was her chief minister and temple architect?
What were Hatshepsut's achievements?
1) Expanded trade with Nubia and Punt 2) Beautified the city of Thebes 3) Built temples and tombs for her next life in the Valley of the Queens 4) Repaired the temples damaged by the Hyksos along the Nile
What luxury goods did they get from Nubia?
Ostrich plumes, leopard skins, gold, and slaves
What goods did they get from Punt?
Ebony, ivory, gold, monkeys, greyhounds, giraffes, 31 myrrh trees
What happened to Hatshepsut towards the end of her reign?
Thutmose III returned and took back his title. Hatshepsut died shortly after and no one knew how she died.
How did Thutmose III try to erase Hatshepsut's memory from Egypt?
1) Chiseled name from carvings/temples 2) Destroyed statues and threw into pits (actually helped the remnants to be preserved)
How did Thutmose III expand his empire?
1) He regained land to the east and expanded all the way to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (modern Iraq) 2) He expanded southward 1,000 miles from the 4th Cataract
How were the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers different from the Nile?
These 2 rivers flowed from North to South. The Nile flowed from South to North.
What were some of Thutmose's interests?
He collected unusual animals and plants. He brought these back to be displayed in the first botanical garden in Thebes.
How did Thutmose ensure loyalty from the eastern peoples whom he conquered?
1)He required that the children of these families be sent to Thebes and be raised with his own children. When these kids grow up, they became completed Egyptianized and loyal to the pharaoh. 2) He also created positions in his government for the Eastern noblemen but gave them no financial power.
What kind of tribute payment did Thutmose require from his conquered nations?
Payments of jewels, spices, and other luxurious trinkets were sent to Thebes.
Which nation was the wealthiest at this point?
What did the 18th dynasty spend most of their wealth on?
They built many grand temples.
Which temple was the largest one in Thebes?
The temple at Karnak.
What was the New Kingdom known as?
It was known as Egypt's golden age of art and architecture.
What were the causes that led to the decreased patriotism or loyalty to the pharaoh?
1) The population was too big for one pharaoh to manage alone so many of the nobles were given power to help run the country - the government became to complex and shaky 2) The army also consisted of paid foreigners (mercenaries) and their only interest for fighting was money NOT out of loyalty to the pharaoh.
In 1361 BC, which eccentric young monarch took over?
What effect did Amonhotep's reign have on Egypt?
He was not an effective ruler which weakened the empire. The conquered Asian nations also did not respect his authority and no longer felt submissive to the government.
Who succeeded Amonhotep?
How many pharaohs were named "Ramses" towards the end of the New Kingdom?
What was the period of history when the 11 Ramses ruled called?
What was Ramses I's 2 achievements?
1) He founded the Ramside dynasty 2) He reconquered much of eastern empire that had been lost by Amonhotep
Who succeeded Ramses I?
Ramses II who ruled for 66 years.
What did Ramses II prefer to be called?
Ramses the Great
What kind of person was Ramses the Great?
He was a braggart and often exaggerated many of his military exploits.
What were Ramses the Great's achievements?
1) Re-established boundaries of old empire 2) Successfully subdued the Hittites 3) Formed the world's first peace treaty with Hittites 4) Gained control of Palestine and southern Syria
Who was Ramses the Great's 1st wife?
Nefertari - she was his favorite.
What did Ramses the Great do to show that he had a HUGE ego?
1) He built the more temples and statues in his image than any other pharaohs 2) He scratched off names of other pharaohs and replaced with his name 3) He ordered that monuments be covered with writing of his "greatness"
How long did Ramses the Great live?
He outlived 11 of his sons and died in his 80s.
Who was the last great pharaoh?
What happened to Egypt during Ramses III's reign?
Nomad from Greece, Mediterranean islands, and Asia Minor tried to conquer Egypt. Ramses III was able to keep them out.
What happened to Egypt after Ramses III died?
It became weak and fell under the domination of Asians and Africans from Lybia & Nubia.
Which war-like people from western Asia (modern Iran) invade Egypt?
How long did the Persians rule Egypt?
Who took Egypt from the Persians?
Alexander the Great from Macedonia.
How did the Egyptians feel about Alexander the Great?
Egyptians welcomed Alexander because he drove out the Persians. They also like him because he respected their culture and honored one of their gods.
What city did Alexander build in the Delta?
Which of Alexander's generals seize a portion of his empire?
When Ptolemy founded the last dynasty, which was the capital of Egypt?
What was considered one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world?
The giant lighthouse at Alexandria's port
Who was the last member of the Ptolemy dynasty to rule Egypt?
Cleopatra - who later died of a snakebite
Who conquered Egypt after Cleopatra died?
How did the Romans regard the Egyptians' monuments/building/temples?
The Romans destroyed them and even converted some temples into Christian churches.
After the fall of Rome in 5th century AD, who ruled Egypt?
The Arabs (Moslem people) who further destroyed what was left of ancient Egypt.
Who were the "Sea People"?
Nomads from Asia Minor who threatened to take over Egypt.
What did Alexandria have inside it?
Libraries, places of learning, research stuff
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Egypt Chapter 1 Part 1
Egypt Chapter 1 Part 2
Egypt Chapter 1 Part 3
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