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Motivation and Attitudes
Terms in this set (38)
the driving force or reasoning behind our actions and behaviors
way of thinking or feeling about peoples, places or things that is reflected in our actions and behavior
What are extrinsic motivations?
What are intrinsic motivations?
innate, unlearned and fixed pattern of behavior that is present in all members of species
an urge resulting from desire to reach goal or satisfy a need
negative feedback mechanisms
How are drives controlled?
the process in which an effect is diminished by its own influence on the system that originally gave rise to it
to maintain homeostasis
what is the purpose of a negative feedback system?
hunger and thirst - biological needs
What are the primary drives?
no biologically based
stem from learning and experiences
ie) love and aggression
What are secondary drives?
the physiologic state of being reactive to stimuli
What are the primary factors affecting motivation?
Which scientists are associated with or influenced instinct theory of motivation?
inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution
people and animals are driven to act or behave in certain ways because of innate instincts that have been programmed into them through evolution
What did the instinct theory of motivation claim?
William James said there were ____ physical instincts and ____ mental instincts that could be overriden by ________
a physiological need creates a chemical state in the body (drive) that motivates the person to engage in a behavior which will reduce the physiological need
What does the drive reduction theory of motivation claim?
The drive reduction theory states a _______ will create a ________ state in the body (________) to engage in a _______. The result would be a _______ in the ______
The needs in the drive reduction theory are ______ while the need in the incentive theory are ______
a desire to acquire rewards and avoid punishments
According to the incentive theory, what are actions and behaviors motivated by?
people behave or act in ways to maintain level of optimal arousal. this varies person by person
What does the arousal theory state?
part of the arousal theory that says performance of actions or behavior is least efficient at low and high levels of arousal.
in between low and high levels of arousal (upside down U)
According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, what is the optimal level of arousal?
Who created the hierarchy of needs pyramid?
What are the hierarchy of needs (list in order from top to bottom)
more motivation in the lower levels of the pyramid
the higher you go, the lower the motivation
According to Maslow, where is there more motivation to fulfill needs in the hierarchy of needs pyramid?
According to the self-determination theory, what are the three general needs that must be met for a person to have ideal relationships?
physiologic, cognitive and cultural factors
What can cause sexual motivation?
destructive motivations such as drug abuse and addiction
What does the opponent-process theory of motivation account for?
person's expectation of reaching a certain goal and how much that person values reaching that goal
Based on the expectancy-value theory, what influences motivation?
if one has high expectation and value in reaching the goal, then one needs less motivation to reach it
What does the expectancy-value theory say about the relation between motivation, expectation and value?
Affective ----- emotional
Behavioral ---- reaction
Cognitive ---- thoughts
What are the components of attitude?
principle of aggression
when attitudes reflect the aggregate of a person's behavior but not every single action
justification of effort
tendency that people have to justify the amount of work and energy they have put into reaching a goal by increasing their own estimation of the value of that goal
cognitive dissonance theory
people have a tendency to seek consistency between their opinions, attitudes and beliefs and when there is inconsistencies between these, something must change to make them more consistent and to relieve any distress that the differences caused
attitude, biases, ideas, beliefs
Prejudice is to _________ as discrimination is to _______
Paul is super nice to all white americans but has an attitude towards blacks. He is displaying __________ (prejudice / discrimination)
an attitude towards a group is an example of prejudice. a behavior towards a group is considered discrimination
T/F - Even if someone is displaying an attitude towards an ethnic group, this is still considered discrimination because you are acting a certain way
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
CH-07: Working Memory
Memory test pyschology
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