218 terms

Milestones (8th Grade Georgia History)

Know all of these items well, and you're certain to exceed on the 8th Grade Georgia Milestones Test for Georgia History (formerly CRCT)

Terms in this set (...)

What is the oldest prehistoric culture that was found in Georgia?
Which prehistoric culture is responsible for the invention of the Bow and Arrow?
Which prehistoric culture is responsible for the introduction of horticulture?
The last prehistoric native era, complex governments, chiefdom, elaborate gardens - many chiefdoms had palisades and motes.
Piedmont and Coastal Plain
What two regions does the Fall Line divide?
South Carolina
The Savannah River forms a border with which state?
Chattahoochee River
What provides the majority of drinking water for Metro Atlanta?
The beaches protect the mainland from damaging winds, erosion and water.
What purpose do the barrier islands serve?
Okefenokee Swamp
What is the largest inland freshwater wetland in Georgia?
Columbus, Macon & Augusta
Three cities on the fall line?
Chattahoochee River
What river forms a portion of Georgia's Western border with Alabama?
Appalachian Mountains
What physical feature contributes to the relatively high amounts of rainfall enjoyed by people in extreme northeast Georgia?
The Chattahoochee River
What river crossing resulted in a town to grow up around it's crossing by the Western & Atlantic Railroad en route from Chattanooga, TN. to Savannah, GA.?
Okefenokee Swamp
Which physical feature in Georgia is home to the largest variety of wildlife?
Lumber in early 1900's & Tourism today
What 2 ways has the Okefenokee impacted Georgia's economy?
Which region of Georgia has the largest population?
Which region of Georgia is well known for its red clay?
Coastal Plain
In which region of Georgia can you find the Okefenokee Swamp?
Appalachian Plateau
What is the only region of Georgia that contains coal (a fossil fuel)?
Blue Ridge
Where in Georgia can you find all of the 78 miles of the Appalachian Trail that are in our state?
Blue Ridge
Which regions receives more annual rain fall?
Coastal Plain
The region where rivers are navigable.
Where in our nation is Georgia Located?
In what two Hemispheres is Georgia Located?
Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina
Which States border Georgia?
Ridge & Valley
Which region of Georgia is well known for the textile manufacturing?
Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian Plateau
***All three regions listed are part of the Appalachian Mountain chain
Which of Georgia's regions include parts of the Appalachian Mountains?
Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes
The First African-American students to integrate the University of Georgia
This country claimed land surrounding the Mississippi River in the interior of North America. The Huguenots, a religious group from this country - created Port Royal and Port Caroline. They established close ties with many native tribes through trade of pelts.
This country claimed land in present day Florida. Its explorers were primarily looking for gold.
Trustee Colony
Georgia was this type of colony from 1732-1752
Royal Colony
Georgia was this type of colony until the end of the American Revolution
Jimmy Carter
The only President of the United States from the State of Georgia Elected in 1976, served from 1977-1981 From Plains, Georgia Former Peanut Farmer
1996 Olympics
Successfully promoted by Andrew Young and Maynard Jackson. Brought in billions and major infrastructure improvements. In Atlanta (but events all over state and Southeast) Brought recognition and prestige to Atlanta.
Sonny Perdue
2-term governor from 2002-2010
1st Republican governor of Georgia since Reconstruction
Income - Expenses =
Headright System
* Land Distribution system first used to give away land and help populate Georgia.
* In place from 1733-1790
Head of the Household got 200 acres and each additional family member got 50
Land Lottery
Land Distribution system used to give away land once there were more people who wanted land than there was land to give away In place after 1790 If you met certain conditions (widowed, mentally incompetent, war veteran) you could get extra chances.
Colonists who sided with Britain
Colonists who wanted their own country
Yazoo Land Fraud
1795 GA Governor Matthews and members of the GA General Assembly were bribed by 4 land companies to sell them cheap land that they could then turn around and sell for a profit The land in question was in modern day AL & Ms Named after Yazoo River
4 term President of the U.S. 1932-1945 Guided Nation during Great Depression and WWII Responsible for the NEW DEAL
Had Polio (could not walk) Vacationed/took therapy for Polio at Warm Springs, GA residence at Warm Springs was called "The Little White House"
Boll Weevil
Invasive beetle that arrived in Georgia in 1915 By 1921, this insect destroyed 45% of Georgia's Cotton Crop Along with an extended drought, it was responsible for Georgia entering the Great depression PRIOR to the rest of the country in 1929
The New Deal
FDR's (President Franklin Roosevelt) program during the Great Depression to get Americans to work because unemployment was very high
Programs included Social Security, CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority), etc...
Button Gwinnett
Lyman Hall
George Walton
Georgians who signed the Declaration of Independence
Abraham Baldwin
William Few
Georgians who signed the United States Constitution
Baldwin College
First Land Grant University (Land donated by government) in the United States of America Chartered in 1785 First President was Abraham Baldwin - first name of the School
County Unit System
1917-1962 affected primary elections only (where we narrow down what candidate from which party will run for a particular office) the 121 smallest counties had the ability to control elections even though 67% of voters lived in the 38 largest counties
Populist Party
A political party that did not support the idea of the New South.
Worcester V Georgia
1832 - White missionary arrested for not swearing oath of allegiance to GA Governor He sued/said GA law did not apply in sovereign Cherokee territory Supreme Ct. ruled GA law did not apply. Won the case. President refused to uphold court ruling
Articles of Confederation
The first laws or constitution of the United States of America Passed and went into effect in 1777 In effect until the Constitution of the United States was written in 1787 Weaknesses of the law led to a need to revise the Articles of Confederation
Could not regulate trade, Could not levy (impose or raise) taxes, Could not raise army/draft troops; required individual states to contribute troops to army
Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
Bell Aircraft Factory
Where B29 bombers were built during WWII
7 Deadly Sins
Refers to a law passed by the Georgia General Assembly in the 1990s
Law requires that Juveniles charged with a number of particularly bad crimes be charged as adults.
Georgia Holocaust Museum
A museum that honors the victims of the Holocaust in Atlanta
Created sit-ins, freedom rides and voter registrations during the Civil Rights Movement.
A group of southern pastors who planned non-violent protests and bus boycotts throughout the south. MLK started it and Andrew Young led it.
Sibley Commission
A group created by the General Assembly to assess Georgia's willingness to integrate schools. They suggested that the General Assembly pass legislation allowing communities to decide for themselves.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act, following the March on Washington, made racial discrimination in public places illegal.
Redrawing the voting district.
Lend Lease Act
The name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945.
Plessy V Ferguson
1896 Homer Plessy (1/8 black) was arrested for illegially sitting in a Whites Only train car in Lousiana Plessy sued/said law unconstitutional US Supreme court ruled against Plessy/said that separate but equal facilities were legal legalized segregation
Brown V BOE
1954 Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and said separate but equal was inherently unequal.
Led to the integration of public schools all across USA Many were against integration of schools, in some places Army/National Guard had to enforce
Dred Scot v Sanford
1857 , a slave, sued for his freedom. His case was that he lived in free states for years as his master was in the military Supreme Ct. said he wasn't a citizen (slave or descendant of a slave) and therefore couldn't sue. CASE DISMISSED
The Amendment that banned Slavery in the United States of America. It was required to be passed by former Confederate States in order to be readmitted to the Union.
13th Amendment to the United States Constitution
written to counter BLACK CODES that disenfranchised blacks; overturned Dred Scott vs. Sanford by making all born in USA citizens; guaranteed equal protection to all under the law; guaranteed due process for gov't taking life, liberty or property
14th Amendment to the United States Constitution
An amendment that made it illegal for US or State gov't to deny someone the right to vote because of: Race, Color, or Previous Condition of Servitude (whether or not someone used to be a slave)
15th Amendment to the United States Constitution
Ellis Arnall
Governor of Georgia from 1943-1947 He reformed the state penal system, repealed the poll tax, lowered the voting age, revised the state constitution, established a teachers' retirement system, and paid off the long-existing state debt.
Three Governor's Episode
E. Talmadge, who had recently been elected governor of GA dies before interim; H. Talmadge, Melvin Thompson and Ellis Arnall claim to be the governor. Herman Talmadge was elected by Georgia.
William B HartsField
Atl Mayor from 1937 to 1941 & from 1942 to 1962
He developed ATL airport into an aviation center
ensured ATL's water supply w/ completion of Buford Dam
declared ATL the city too busy to hate during the Civil Rights Era
Ivan Allen
2 term Mayor of ATL (1962-1970)
ATL experienced dramatic growth
Opposed Segregation: day 1 as mayor/took down all "white" & "colored" signs from city hall
Built during tenure:
ATl Stadium/Braves to ATL 1966
ATL Civic Center
I-285 started
Three reasons for the settlement of the Georgia Colony
Yamacraw (part of the Creek Nation) Indian Chief Friends with James Oglethorpe Gave land at Yamacraw Bluff to the English settlers led by Oglethorpe
James Ogelthorpe
Founder of the Georgia Colony Inspired to start colony by the death of his friend, Robert Castell in debtor's prison in England One of Georgia's original Trustees
Mary Musgrove
1/2 Native American, 1/2 White Translated between Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi and Oglethorpe who could not speak each others languages. Married to John Musgrove, with whom she helped run a trading post in the area near what would become Savannah.
Founded on Yamacraw Bluff in 1733 (available freshwater springs, high point of land, easy to defend) Founded by Oglethorpe with the assistance of Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi Georgia's first Capital
Hernando de Soto
Spanish: 1st European to explore what is now Georgia in 1540 Treated Native Americans poorly Looking for wealth & riches, but did bring along items for trade with natives and Catholic priests to convert natives to Christianity
Spanish Missions
Located on Georgia's barrier islands established to convert Native Americans to Christianity Located near Native American village centers (where the most people were) required Native Americans to provide labor to the Spanish
A system of trade where a mother country produces finished goods from materials imported from colonies. A reason for the establishment of colonies in North America by European countries, increases the wealth of the mother country
Some of the first immigrants to the new Georgia colony in the 1730's From Salzburg, in Austria came to Georgia to escape religious persecution (they were protestants, not Catholics) settled Ebenezer/New Ebenezer opposed slavery
First settlers to arrive to Savannah following the original English settlers. Saved the colony from disease.
Highland Scots
Early immigrants to the Georgia colony Per Oglethorpe, settled Darien, Ga. (which was on the northern bank of the Altamaha River...the southern border of the Georgia colony at the time) Were fierce fighters/helped defend border w/Spanish Florida
Settlers in the Georgia colony who were not happy with conditions in the colony
wanted slavery (to compete w/ cheap exports in neighboring S. Carolina)
wanted to change restrictions on land ownership/inheritance
Slavery in Georgia
Began in 1750, 2 years before it was technically legal (when GA became a Royal Colony in 1752) Greatly expanded after 1793 invention of Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney Does not end until passage of the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution in 1865
John Reynolds
Henry Ellis
James Wright
Georgia's Royal Governors
French & Indian War
1754-1763 (also known as the 7 years war) France & Indian Allies vs Great Britain over control of the Ohio River Valley expensive/long time, long distances involved, it's WAR! Great Britain won, leads to American Revolution (taxes to pay for F&I war)
Proclamation of 1763
forbade colonists moving W of Appalachian Mtns. Moved GA's southern border to St. Mary's river Saved Great Britain $ by keeping troops out of the Ohio River Valley to protect colonists from Native Americans Helped to pay off debt from F&I War
Stamp Act
Placed taxes on newspapers, licenses and other items in the British colonies in North America Supposed to help pay off debt from F&I War Upset colonists: NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
Intolerable Acts
Great Britain's punishment to its American colonies for the Boston Tea Party (12/16/1773)
Incensed/greatly angered American colonists Quartering Act, repair Boston Harbor, no meetings in MA w/o Governor approval, British Officials tried in Britain
Declaration of Independence
Approved 4 July 1776 (signed 2 August 1776) GA signers: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton severed ties between Great Britain & its 13 American colonies Established The United States of America signed over 1 year after war began (4/19/1775)
Elijah Clarke
Commander (rank of Colonel) at Battle of Kettle Creek (2/14/1779, near Washington, GA) helped by Austin Dabney American victory captured valuable supplies from the British Showed British inability to hold interior of state & protect loyalists
Austin Dabney
African American who fought at the Battle of Kettle Creek Served in the place of Richard Aycock Helped save commander Elijah Clarke at the Battle of Kettle Creek
Nancy Hart
Only woman in Georgia to have a county named after her Lived near Elberton, Ga. Neighbor killed by Tories for not helping them; Hart killed 1 or 2 of 5 Tories who wanted her to cook them dinner in 1771 Before Quartering Act; Don't mess with her!
Battle of Kettle Creek
2/14/1779 (Revolutionary War), near Washington, GA American victory captured valuable supplies from the British Showed British inability to hold interior of state & protect loyalists
Siege of Savannah
Early September-October 9 of 1779
British held the city
Americans together with French fought to take the city
1,000 American soldiers died vs. only 40 British
British kept the city till end of Revolutionary War"
Became the capital of Georgia in 1796 (moved from Augusta) Located in East-Central Georgia capital was moved to be nearer to the state's shifting center of population
How Baptist faith spread
Baptist Convnetions
How Methodist faith spread
Camp Meetings
Alexander McGillivray
Signed Treaty of New York (1790) along with George Washington (yes, THAT Washington) Attacked Whites/Pioneers in Georgia to keep them from taking Creek land Treaty of New York forced Creeks to give up land EAST of the Oconee River
William McIntosh
Signed Treaty of Indian Springs (1/8/1821) Creek Chief Treaty gave up all remaining Creek lands in Georgia Was killed by a group of angry Creek Indians for signing the treaty TWO wives?!?
Trail of Tears
1838 forced relocation of Cherokee Indian tribe from Cherokee capital of New Echota (near Chatsworth, Ga) to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
US soldiers led by Gen. Winfield Scott
around 4,000 of 15,000 Cherokee died on the trek
2 routes: overland and water"
Cherokee Indian (english name: George Gist)
Invented Cherokee Syllabary in 1821
Only time in recorded history that a member of an illiterate people independently created an effective writing system
system widely adopted by Cherokee"
Dahlonega Gold Rush
Gold discovered near Dahlonega, Ga in 1829 by Benjamin Parks
Led to Cherokee being kicked off their own lands
Beginnings of first major Gold Rush in America
so much gold found that a U.S. mint was established in Dahlonega
John Ross
Cherokee Chief
1st Democratically elected leader of the Cherokee
Took a petition to Washington, D.C./Congress objecting to the Indian Removal Act
State's Rights
The belief that a State's interests supersede the interests of the National Government
opposite of Federalism
The idea that a State can void any (national or federal) law that it feels is not in its best interests/might be harmful to the State.
Related to States' Rights *
Nullification Crisis of 1832 SC/other southern states wanted to void 1828 Tariff of secede
Missouri Compromise
Allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a Slave state
Allowed Maine to enter the Union as a Free state
Forbade slavery north of Missouri's southern border (36' 30")
Maintained balance of power (N vs S in U.S. Senate)"
Compromise of 1850
California enters Union as a Free State
Texas gives up annexing N.M.
N.M. & UT.--> Popular Sovereignty determines Slave/Free
End of slave trade in/slave owners still keep slaves in D.C.
GA. Platform--> Compromise accepted w/ Fugitive Slave Act
Georgia Platform
Georgia's reaction to the Compromise of 1850 - that is would support California becoming a free state as long as northern states abided by the fugitive slave act.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Creates territories of Kansas and Nebraska
Allowed Popular Sovereignty to determine if Slave/Free
Nullifies Missouri Compromise & angers many Northerners/Abolitionists because slavery could be allowed N of Missouri's Southern border
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln, a Northern Republican elected
Received 0 electoral votes from Slave states
Slave states felt he could not represent them and wanted to outlaw slavery
In response many southern states opened secession conventions to secede from the Union
Alexander Stephens
Georgian who argued passionately against Georgia seceding at its secession convention
Even though Georgia eventually seceded, he still elected to support his home state by agreeing to serve as Vice President of the Confederacy
September 17, 1862 battle
winner inconclusive, but tactical Union victory
Because the Union was losing the war to this point, it was the victory Lincoln needed (to speak from strength, not desperation) to issue the Emancipation Proclamation (to end war)
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued 9/22/1862-->in effect Jan. 1, 1863
issued to end war as quickly as possible
promised CSA it could keep slaves if war ended, or all slaves in states/districts in rebellion would be freed
made war about slavery (France/G.B. could not support CSA)
Bloodiest Battle of Civil War
Union Victory
Turning point of the Civil War/Last time Confederate forces invaded the Union"
Last major Confederate victory in Georgia. Second bloodiest battle of the Civil War
Commander Braxton Bragg's not following up on the defeated Union Commander Rosecrans's forces was a mistake/those forces would later join Sherman through his destructive Georgia campaigns
Union Blockade
Union strategy to keep CSA from implementing its King Cotton Diplomacy
Ships off the GA. coast to prevent trading w/European countries (King Cotton Diplomacy/Importation of war supplies for CSA)
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign
a series of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864; from May-September 1864 with Atlanta as the ultimate objective; Sherman's army marched from Chattanooga to Atlanta. Included the battles of Dalton, Resaca, and Kennesaw Mountain
Sherman's March to the Sea
november to december 1864
60 miles wide total war, less destructive because of a lack of resistance.
final psychological defeat of the confederacy.
Andersonville Prison
opened from mid february 1864 to april 9th 1865 nearly 12,000 union soldiers die out of 45,000 union P.O.W. commandant Henry Wirz was executed for excessive cruelty
Freedman's Bureau
Following the passage of the 13th amendment, it was established to help the newly freed slaves receive immediate basic care. In the long term, it establish many schools - some of which are still in operation today.
a system of farming where the land owner provides seeds, tools, livestock, and housing to the farmer and his family in exchange for a large share of the crop
Tenant Farming
a system of farming where the farmer pays the land owner a rent in exchange for the use of his land. under this system the land owner is responsible for only providing the land. (farmer is responsible for everything else)
Lincoln's Reconstruction (10%) Plan
give amnesty to all (except war criminals) willing to take an oath loyal to U.S. Southerners had to promise to support the U.S. Constitution and obey anti-slavery laws Southern States governments would be recognized after 10% of the number of 1860 voters took oath of allegiance
Johnson's Reconstruction (10%+) Plan
Recognized several of Lincoln's 10 percent governments. It Disfranchised certain leading Confederates and called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal the ordinances of secession, repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the 13th Amendment. Punished the wealthy in the south.
a terrorist organization founded in Pulaski, Tennessee after the civil war, led by Nathan Bedford Forrest. Led by planters, merchants, & Democratic politicians.Targeted Republican leaders (black & white)
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
Bourbon Triumvirates
Three Democrats that controlled Georgia's gov't after reconstruction.
Their goals were:
1. To expand GA's economy & ties with industries in the North
2. Maintain the tradition of the white supremacy
Rebecca Latimer Felton
First U.S. women into senate
leader in the suffrage (women's vote)
used family owned newspaper to attack Bourbons
complained to democrats that they were ignoring Georgia's middle class & poor
pushed for equal rights
Henry Grady
Editor of Atlanta Constitution.
Promoted a "New South", which focused on getting over the Civil War and a shift from the traditional southern agrarian economy to a more industrial one.
Organizer of the International Cotton Exposition in the 1880s
Cotton Exposition
A convention that happened three times where southern farmers and such went to a building in present day Piedmont Park to show the world how the South had been recovering from the war. Speech was made on the topic of race relations by Booker T. Washington on September 18, 1895. ( cast your bucket down where you are; separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand )
Tom Watson
"Populists" tend to claim that they side with "the people" against "the elites"
He was a populist, and a Congressional Representative from Georgia
Main focus was Georgia's poor and struggling farmers
Introduced RFD (Rural Free Delivery)...that's the mail, y'all
Atlanta Riots of 1906
This was a mass civil disturbance which began Sept. 22 1906 and lasted until Sept. 26 and ended the same year.
25-40 African-Americans were killed
the cause was the rising competition for jobs between blacks and whites.
Leo Frank Case
1913 Atlanta, Georgia.
Body of a young girl (Mary Phagan) was found in the basement of a pencil factory and was Frank accused and convicted of murder.
The governor of Georgia commuted his sentence to life in prison and a mob reacted to this by breaking into his home and murdering him.
Led to the re-birth and resurgence of the KKK (2nd Klan, Knights of Mary Phagan)
Jim Crow Laws
Laws that were highly popular in the South and were put in place to keep blacks from voting, segregating public places and facilities, transportation, etc.
Booker T Washington
African American who thought the best way to achieve equality for African Americans was to expand their opportunities by getting all the education that's possible
founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
Atlanta Compromise Speech
WEB Dubois
b. 1868 - d. 1963
First African-American to graduate from Harvard
Co-founder of the NAACP, 1909
opposed Booker T Washington's Atlanta Compromise
Concluded that socialism may be a better path to racial equality than capitalism
John & Lugenia Burns-Hope
He was an important African American educator and race leader of the early twentieth century. President of Atlanta University, active in NAACP, first black president of Morehouse College
She was a social reformer whose Neighborhood Union and other community service organizations improved the quality of life for blacks in Atlanta, Georgia, and served as a model for the future Civil Rights Movement.
Alonzo Herndon
Former slave from Social Circle, Georgia
Self taught barber and business owner
Founder/owned of Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance company
Early African American millionaire
Great Depression
The stock market crash of 1929 resulted in a drastic economic downturn that led to the Great Depression. Businesses closed, banks declared bankruptcy, and millions of individuals lost jobs and savings. By 1932 1/4 of all Americans were out of work. Depression did not end until U.S. entered WWII
Eugene Talmadge
He is one of Georgia's more controversial governors.
He was elected to four terms in total and was well known for stumping the rural parts of the state to obtain the farmer votes needed due to the county unit system.
He was a conservative, to the point of fiercely opposing Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
Avowed segregationist.
The guy who died leading to the 3 governor's episode.
Georgia Flag of 1956
after the 1954 Brown vs. Board supreme court case integrating public schools forced GA and other states to let black and white kids go to school together, Georgia legislators protested by changing the state flag to incorporate the Confederate Battle Flag.
Considered offensive to many because it protested integration, rather than simply supporting states' rights.
Andrew Young
An American politician, diplomat, civil-rights activist and pastor from Georgia
He has served as Mayor of Atlanta, a Congressman from the 5th district, and United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
Carl Vinson
From Georgia
Known as the father of the two ocean navy, he was a driving force behind the United States having a Pacific ocean fleet and an Atlantic ocean fleet prior to WWII.
He is also known for his partnership with Richard Russell, and their ability to get numerous military Installations into Georgia during World War II, bringing many new jobs to the state.
Richard B Russell
Served as Georgia's governor two years and was known for simplifying the state's government.
After this he was one of Georgia's U.S. senators for the next 38 years.
His best known accomplishments as a Senator are his support of the military and along with his partnership of Carl Vinson, their ability to get numerous military installations into the state during World War II, bringing many new jobs to the state
Martin Luther King, Jr
Pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta
Civil Rights Activist and proponent of Civil Disobedience
Famous for 1954 Montgomery Bus Boycott
1963 March on Washington, gave the "I have a Dream" speech
Worked on Civil Rights Act of 1964 with JFK
Assassinated in Memphis, TN. in 1968
Sonny Perdue
2-term governor from 2002-2010
1st Republican governor of Georgia since Reconstruction
Many different training bases for soldiers about to go overseas were located in Georgia
Georgia's Role in WWI
Fort King George
First English establishment in present day Georgia before it officially became a colony. Its intent was to protect SC from Spanish attacks.
Charter of 1732
Document that founded the trustee colony of Georgia.
Separation of Power
Dividing all of the powers of a king into 3 powers. The federal, state and local governments divide the powers of the government (passing laws, enforcing laws, and interpreting laws) into three branches.
Checks and Balances
The three branches of the government keep one branch from becoming too powerful.
U.S., Georgia and district citizen. You must be 18 years old to vote. You can not vote if you are a convicted felon or if you have been found to be mentally incompetent
Voting qualifications in Georgia
Primary Election
Held in July. People chose individuals to represent each political party.
General Election
Held in November. People choose the best candidate for the position being sought. Run offs are held as an extension of the General Election.
Political Parties
Groups of people who join together because of shared interests and beliefs. People you vote for typically belong to a political party. Voters identify with political parties to make it easier when deciding who to vote for.
Legislative Branch
comprised of the two houses of the General Assembly - the House of Representatives and the Senate. The legislative branch makes the laws.
Minority Leader:
Leader of the minority party. He or she tries to get the ideas and interests of the minority party heard.
Floor Leader:
Represents the interests of the Governor. They are usually in the majority party.
Executive Branch
the largest branch of the state governor. It comprises the Governor, Lt. Governor, 6 elected officials and hundreds of agencies. The job of the executive branch is to enforce the laws passed by the General Assembly and Congress.
Department of Education: Education
Department in charge of curriculum, teacher certification, education funds, programs and text books
Department of Human Services:
Department in charge of welfare, medicare, medicaid
Department of Public Safety:
Department in charge of public safety, capital police and Georgia State Patrol
Department of Transportation:
Department in charge of road maintenance, public transportation and the shipyards in Savannah & Brunswick
Department of Economic Development:
Department in charge of economic development (exports, imports)
Department of Natural Resources:
Department in charge of wildlife management, hunting and fishing license
Judicial Branch
Interprets the laws in the state. There are two main types of courts: Trial court (trials) and appellate court (appeals following a trial).
includes the geographic area a court controls as well as what types of cases a court oversees. A misdemeanor is a minor crime of punishment less than 1 year in jail. A felony is a major crime of punishment more than one year in jail.
Civil Cases
involves a person or group of people who feel that a person or a group of people have done them wrong. They involve a plaintiff (person suing) and a defendant (person being sued).
Criminal cases:
a case where someone is being accused of committing a crime. There is a defendant and the prosecutor is always the government. A misdemeanor is a crime that carries less than a year in jail. A felony carries more than a year in jail.
Appellate Courts
Supreme Court: Reviews civil and criminal cases in trial courts and in Court of Appeals, handles appeals involving the death penalty and makes sure elections are fair.
Superior, State and sometimes Probate
Trial courts with juries
Hearings that are not official court trials. They involve a mediator. Settling disputes using a mediator is best for tax payers and the legal system. No one gets punished. Conflicts are simply resolved out of court.
Unruly Behavior
Status offenses (adults can't be charged). Not going to school, disobeying parents, etc... For serious offenses a child can serve up to 2 years in a detention center.
Delinquent Behavior
When someone between the ages of 14 - 17 has committed a crime. Serious delinquent behavior can result in spending up to 5 years in a detention center.
Municipal Governments
There are 535 in the state of Georgia. They must have charters. The municipal charters outline the form of government, boundaries and powers. There is no set limit of the number of municipalities in Georgia. Municipal charters are approved by the General Assembly. There must be more than 200 people living in an area, it must be 3 miles from another city, at least 2/3 of the land is split into living or business properties. To remain a municipality, a city must hold regular elections, have 6 official meetings a year, provide 3 or more services. There are three different types of municipal governments: council-manager, strong mayor-council, and weak mayor-council.
City council hires a city manager and the city manager is in charge of the city. The City manager decides whose in charge of the city, the city budget, etc.. There is a mayor but they have no more power than the city council.
Strong Mayor-Council
Mayor has the most power, can veto legislation passed by council, influence every major policy
Weak Mayor-Council
Council and the mayor have equal power in making decisions. Often the mayor is a "figure-head" with no power.
All city Council members, including the Mayor, have equal voting power and serve as department heads.
Special-Purpose Districts
Local government authorities that meet specific needs of the community (education, transit, recreation, etc...) They have their own regulations and laws that govern them.
Georgia Revenue
Taxes make up the most revenue generated in Georgia with the Income Tax bring in the most. Sales tax is the second largest income, followed by corporate and finally property tax. The largest non-tax revenue for the state is the Georgia lottery followed by the tobacco settle fund. Grants and fees and services also contribute. All state revenue is deposited in a general fund and dispersed at the end of the fiscal year.
Income Tax
Taxes paid on income. Largest source of revenue for the state.
Sales Tax
Taxes paid on things that you purchase. Second largest sources of revenue for the state.
Property Tax
Taxes paid on property. Largest revenue for the counties but not for the state. The state only gets about 1 percent of this.
Non-tax Revenue
Lottery, Tobacco Fund
Georgia Expenditures
Education is the largest state expenditure followed by social services, criminal justice, debt services, transportation and other state agencies.
Ad Valorem Tax
Property Tax. Local revenue on the value of property.
Special Purpose Local Option Sales Tax. 1 percent sales taxes places on purchased items to fund schools, roads, and other counties facilities and services. They can only last 5 years and voters must decide whether to enact them.
Prime Lending Rate
The rate set by the federal government that determines the interest rates at banks. When the federal reserve wants more money in circulation they lower the lending rate (interest paid on loans) and people barrow more money and spend more. When the prices of goods get too high the federal reserve raises the PMI so that people can't barrow money.
Compound Interest
Interest calculated not only on the initial principal but also the accumulated interest of prior periods. Compound interest differs from simple interest in that simple interest is calculated solely as a percentage of the principal sum.
Spending money in the hopes of earning more than is spent
Mutual Funds
A number of stocks - that when invested in together - lower the risk of investing.
Possibility of losing money
Barrowed money.
Municipal charter
Document that creates a city - if passed into law by the General Assembly
Board of Commissioners
The governing authority of every county in Georgia
churches set up by the Spanish in hopes of converting Native Americans to Christianity.
A plant used to make valuable blue dye
Royal Governor
Governor appointed by the English Monarch to run the colony. Georgia had three royal governors: John Reynolds, Henry Ellis, and James Wright
Silk Industry
an industry encouraged by the Trustees of Georgia to support mercantilism; colonist planted mulberry trees to support the silkworms; the silk industry never developed into a profitable venture.
one of the seven largest great masses of land on the earth
halves of the globe divided by the equator and prime meridian
a politically organized body of people under a single government
the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
an official statement of a complaint over something believed to be wrong or unfair.
a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose)
- something such as an advertisement or public notice, that is printed on a large piece of paper
the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
constitutional convention
meeting of state delegates in 1787 its purpose was to revise the articles of confederation but they made a whole new government
great compromise
plan at the constitutional convention that settled the differences between large and small states
house would be represented by population and the senate would be represented equally
Creek Indians
Native American tribe that lived primarily around the Fall Line and in the Coastal Plain region
one of the major technological advances of the 19th century. Georgia was one of the leaders in railroad development in the 1830's.
Cherokee Indians
Indian tribe that lived in northern GA and fought removal by the white settlers. Learned English, built towns and established a written constitution
One of Georgia's main Native American tribe.
Forced to move west in a journey called The Trail of Tears
John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee in Worchester v. Gerogia case, but President Jackson refused to enforce the ruling.
cotton gin
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves. 1861-1865
Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation
infamous Civil War prisoner-of-war camp in Macon County, Georgia. Over 13,000 Union soldiers died in the camp

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