AP World History - Chapter 18 : Russia Unifies and Expands

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CaesarIt is the Latin word which the term 'tsar' was derived from.MoscowIt is a city in Russia. Physical changes here showed the growing status and power of Russian rulers. Became a major trade center for furs and timbers, prominence rose.KremlinIt was the central citadel of Moscow. Ivan III rebuilt the walls of this, adding towers designed by Italian architects.KievIt was a city where a slave market was located. It had formerly been the major link between trade routes that stretched from Scandinavia to the Islamic and Byzantine areas in the south and east. Decreased in importance as Moscow's prominence rose.boyarsThey were the noble landowning class who were at the top of the social hierarchy in Moscow.serfsThey were peasants who received a plot of land and protection from a noble. In return, they were bound to that land and had little personal freedom.Ivan IV(ruled 1547-1584) "Ivan the Terrible" He was another colorful leader who expanded Russia eastward. Made many military actions. Killed his son in a fit of rage and sank deep into paranoia. Died in 1584, no strong heir. Was not so terrible after all, as he did add much territory to Russia and expanded trade opportunities.Kazan, Astrakhan, SiberiaThese khanates were taken over by Ivan IV. Held by the descendants of the 'Golden Horde', the Mongolian conquerors. Relied on gunpowder.St. Basil's CathedralIt was commissioned to be built by Ivan IV, which served as a visual reminder to the nation that the tsar and Church were united. Still standing in Red Square, Moscow.CossacksThey were fierce peasant warriors that were hired by the Stroganovs (major Russian landowners, allowed by Ivan IV) who fought the local tribes and Siberian Khan. Successful.Volga RiverIt is the longest river in Europe which flowed through Russia into the Caspian Sea. The cossacks successfully gained control of this river, which enabled Moscow to trade directly with Persia and the Ottoman Empire without having to deal with the strong forces of the Crimean tartars.Caspian SeaIt is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. The Volga River flowed directly into here.AlaskaRussia's expansions and fur trading expeditions continued down the Pacific to here in 1741.OprichninaThey were a paramilitary force established by Ivan IV to control the boyars at home. Dressed in black and traveled quickly on horseback, showed fierce loyalty to Ivan IV. Drawn from lower-level bureaucrats and merchants to assure their loyalty to Ivan rather than to the boyars. Secret methods reflected later in the Russian secret police.Time of TroublesIt was a phase that Russia entered in 1603 because there was not a strong autocrat or family in control.Zemsky Sobor(Assembly of the Land) It was a national assembly that chose Micheal Romanov as leader. In 1613.Romanov DynastyIt was a dynasty that would lead Russia until 1917. They held autocratic control and pushed the borders of Russia east to Mongolia.Peter I(ruled 1682-1725) 'Peter the Great' He was a leader of Russia who reformed the Orthodox Church, visited Western Europe, changed traditional practices, and emphasized industrialism.StreltsyThey were a boyar-led elite military corps. Supporters of Sophia, Peter I's half-sister. Peter I would defeat them; when they rebelled, he temporarily disbanded them and integrated them into Russia's regular army.patriarchIt was the position of the head of the church in the Orthodox Church. Abolished by Peter I.Holy SynodIt was composed of clergymen overseen by a secular official who answered to the tsar. Established by Peter I.Old BelieversThey were a sect that opposed earlier reforms. Peter reform's were not welcome by these and peasants.St. PetersburgIt was Russia's own warm-water port on the Baltic. Achieved by the conquest of Russia to seize lands on the Baltic sea from Sweden, under the rule of Peter I.Winter PalaceIt was the tsars' in-town home in St. Petersburg, which was famous. Built in the mid-18th century, under the rule of Peter I.Table of RanksIt was a ranking list that listed military and governmental positions that could be filled by the best-qualified persons regardless of social status. Established by Peter I.provincesThey were administrative divisions created by Peter I to reorganize the Russian government. (first 8, then later 50). Officials of these recieved a salary, replacing the old system of local officials "feeding off the land".Catherine II(ruled 1762-1796) "Catherine the Great" She was an educated, German-born protestant who married Peter III and took the throne in 1762. Powerful tsarina who joined the Orthodox Church to legitimize her power.philosophesThey were Western European thinkers. Catherine II corresponded with them to attempt to code codify Russian laws and end the state's use of torture.Partition of PolandIt was when Russia joined with Prussia and Austria, during the rule of Catherine II. They would also divide Poland among themselves.WesternizationIt was where Russia would adopt the culture of Western Culture. Continued by Catherine II after Peter I.SlavophilismIt was a conservative philosophical movement the was focused on keeping Russia's development on it's own history and character and not use Western European culture as a model.SlavophilesThey believed that Russia should base its development on its own history and character and not use Western European culture as a model.Pale of SettlementIt was a territory created by Catherine II where the Jews of Russia were required to live. Set the Jews apart and made them more vulnerable to Anti-Semitism.pogromsThey were vicious anti-Jewish attacks that occurred frequently in Russia by the 19th century. Due to the Pale of Settlement and Jew isolation.Black SeaIt is a body of water. Southwest of Moscow, near here, peasants who were skilled fighters lived on the grassy, treeless steppes.steppesThey were grassy, treeless large areas of flat grassland. Southwest of Moscow, near the Black Sea, peasants who were skilled fighters lived here.Yemelyan PugachevHe was a Cossack who initiated a peasant rebellion against Catherine the Great in 1774. Falsely claimed to be her murdered husband, Peter III, and gathered a group of followers.Pugachev RebellionIt was a peasant rebellion initiated by the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev against Catherine II in 1774. Increased Catherine II's oppression of the peasants.mirsThey were village communes who also kept the small landholders among the peasants in check.

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