What are the three causes of hypersensitivity diseases?
1.) autoimmunity 2.) rxn against microbes (maybe prolonged exposure to something 3.) rxn against enviromental antigens (all of us are exposed to these but only some people react to them, they are usually harmless antigens ex. Pollin)
mechanisms of immunologically mediated disorders
Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by ____ directed against specific antigens (allergens)
immunoglobulin E (IgE)
Primary mediators of type I hypersensitivity include ___, ___, ___ and ____.
histamine, adenosine, heparin and proteases
Secondary mediators of type I hypersensitivity include ____, ___, ____ and ____.
leukotrienes (which are 10x more potent than histamine), prostaglandin D2, platelet-activating factor, and cytokines
Anaphylaxis, allergies, and bronchial asthma are all prototype disorders of type ___ hypersensitivity
In type I hypersensitivity, both primary and secondary mediators cause ___, ____ and ____.
vascular permeability, smooth muscle contraction, and prolonged inflammation
Hypersensitivity can cause ___ and ___ reactions
local (ex. Bee sting) and systemic (ex. Anaphylactic response)
Type on hypersensitivity
Mast cells in hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity is mediated by _____.
antibodies (our own body reacting to our body)
With Type II hypersensitivity, antibodies are directed against target antigens on the surface of cells or orther tissue components. This leads to _____.
What are the three kinds of Type II hypersensitivity?
is characterized by the destruction of articular carlage and bone
A 16-year-old black female presents to her primary care physician with symptoms of fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, and a facial rash. On examination she is noted to be thin with malar skin changes. No other abnormality is found
A 52-year-old woman presents with a 2-month history of bilateral hand and wrist pain, and swelling in her fingers. She has also recently noted similar pain in the balls of her feet. She finds it hard to get going in the morning and feels stiff for hours after waking up. She also complains of increasing fatigue and is unable to turn on and off faucets or use a keyboard at work without a significant amount of pain in her hands.She also presents with leg ulcers that have been chronic and has ulnar deviation of the hands bilaterally. She denies any infections before or since her symptoms started
pathologic changes that begin in ligmentous attachments to bone; frequently involves SI joints
A 45-year-old woman presents with fatigue and a history of positive anti-nuclear antibodies. She has had recurrent sensation of sand/gravel in eyes and dry mouth every day for more than 3 months.
the pathogenesis of sjogrens syndrome
genetic factors of sjogren's syndrome
what are the two groups of systemic sclerosis (SS)
diffuse and limited scleroderma
widespread skin involvement and rapid progression of early visceral involvment
skin involvment is confined to fingers/face, visceral involvement occurs late, presents with CREST
limited scleroderma SS
Calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia
calcium deposits in the skin
spasm of blood vessels in response to cold/stress
acid reflux and decrease in motility of esophagus
thickening and tightening of the skin on the fingers and hands
diallation of capillaries causing red marks on surface of skin
what is the next step in the immune response after mast cells and macrophages are recruited
release of fibroblast growth and chemotactic factors or endothelial cell injury
Heliotrope rash associated with_______
characterized by decreased antibodies, T/B-cells, phagocytes or complements
Ex of decreased T-cells
Thymic aplasia, DiGeorge's syndrome
Ex of decreased antibodies
characterized by old age, chronic malnutrition, widespread malignancy, metabolic (DM, liver failure...), drugs, splenectomy or HIV
which type of HIV is more prevalent in our geographic location?Africa?
HIV 1; HIV2
Name some high risk groups of HIV
risky sex, IV drug users, homosexual, transfusion pts, and hyperphiliacs
what cells are affected mainly by HIV infection
how is HIV transmitted
body fluids, mother to fetus
HIV is a ______ retrovirus
HIV-2 is prevelent in
HIV-1 is prevelent
HIV is transmitted via
Bodily Fluids, vertical transmissions
HIV High Risk groups include
IV drug users, homosexuals, transfusions, hemopheliacs
HIV affects ______ cells
With HIV you can test for a ________
In HIV _____ binds to ______
In HIV after binding to CD-4 gp41 ________
penetrates the membrane
HIV _____ off of cell
HIV clinical latency is considered a CD-4 of greater than _______