Psychology Ch. 8: Learning

relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. Events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning)
classical conditioning
type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
unconditioned response (UR)
clasical conditioning: unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
classical conditioning, learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrevelant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
initial stage in classical conditioning; phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus; strengthening of a reinforced response in operant conditioning
diminishing of a conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
reappearance after a pause, of an extinguised conditioned response
tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguise between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
type of learning which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
chamber also known as Skinner's box, containing a bar so an animal can manipulate to obtain food as a reinforcer and used in operant conditioning
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
primary reinforcer
in innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing that desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specifed number of responses
variable-ration schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior to promised standards or threats of punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior