Psychology Ch. 9: Memory

persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
processing of information into the memory system- for example, extracting meaning
retention of encoded information over time
process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing
long-term memory
relatively permanant and limitedless storehouse of the memory system
working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incomine auditory and visual-spatial information
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequence
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing
memory aids; like vivid imagery
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
neural center that is located in limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before"
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined