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Chapter 31: Medication Administration
Terms in this set (63)
a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment, cure, relief, or prevention of health problems
Who is responsible for evaluating effects of medications on patients?
Administering medication requieres________,__________,_____________,___________,__________,____________,__________.
knowing legal aspects of healthcare
Enforcement of drug laws currently rests with___________.
Food and drug administration (FDA)
What does the FDA require for all medications on the market?
they undergo vigorous testing before they are sold to the public
What does MedWatch encourage nurses to do?
report when a medication, product, or medical event causes serious harm to a patient
Nursing Practice Acts (NPAs)
have the most influence over nursing practice by defining the scope of nurses professional functions and responsibilities
What is the primary intent of NPAs?
to protect the public from unskilled, undereducated, and unlicensed personnel
What are the names which a manufacturer markets a medication?
trade name, brand name, or proprietary name
What does the medication classification indicate?
the effect of medication on body system, symptoms medication relieves, or desired effect
Do medications ever have more than one class?
What determines the route of administration?
the form of the medication
What are some examples of different forms of medications?
tablets, capsules, elixirs, and suppositories
What are the steps in order for medications to be therapeutic?
Must be taken into patients body; absorbed and distributed to cells, tissues, or specific organ; and alter physiological functions
study of how medications enter the body, reach their site of action, metabolize, and exit the body
passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of medication administration
What are the factors that influence absorption of medication?
route of administration, ability of medication to dissolve, blood flow to site of administration, BSA, lipid solubility of medication
How is the absorption rate when applying medication on the skin?
When medications are placed on the mucous membranes and respiratory airways, how are the absorption rates?
Why is absorption rate quick for mucous membranes and respiratory airways?
because they have many blood vessels
When patients take medications orally, how is the absorption rate?
Why are absorption rates slow when taking oral medications?
because medication passes through GI tract in order to get absorbed
When medication is administered through IV, how is the absorption rate?
Why are medications administered through IV fast acting?
because they are immediately available in the circulation and do not have to get absorbed
What does the body absorb faster when giving medication orally?
liquids, and tablets and capsules are slowly absorbed
When are medications absorbed?
when blood comes in contact with the site of administration
When a medication comes in contact with a large BSA, what happens to the absorption rate?
Why do highly soluble medications cross membranes easily, and absorbed quickly?
because the cell has a lipid bilayer
Why are some oral medications better to take between meals?
because food changes structure of medication and sometimes impairs its absorption
When some medications are administered together, what happens?
they interfere with one another, which impairs the absorption of both medications
After medication is absorbed, what happens?
it is distributed within the body to tissues and organs, and specific site of action
Once medication enters the bloodstream, what happens?
it is carried throughout the tissues and organs
What determines the rate at which the medication reaches the tissues and organs?
vascularity of the tissues and organs
ability of the medication to pass through tissues and membranes to enter target cells
In order for a medication to be distributed to an organ, what does it have to pass through?
all the tissues and membranes of the organ
Medications bound to albumin cannot do what?
exert pharmacological activity
What is the active form of medication?
the medication that is not attached to protein in blood
After a medication reaches its site of action, what happens?
it becomes metabolized into less active or inactive form
What does metabolized medicine make easier?
Biotransformation occurs under the influence of?
enzymes that detoxify, break down, and remove biologically active chemicals
What happens if liver function decreases with medication elimination?
eliminated more slowly
When medication is eliminated more slowly, what does that result in?
After medications are metabolized, what happens?
they exit the body
What do medications exit the body through?
kidneys, liver, bowel, lungs, exocrine glands
How are the medications that enter the hepatic circulation broken down?
by the liver and excreted into the bile
What is the main organ for medication excretion?
If renal function declines, what is the risk for the patient when on medications?
expected or predicted physiological response that a medication causes
predictable secondary effects produced at a usual therapeutic dose
Side effects are either ______ or _______
harmless or cause injury
unintended, undesirable, unpredictable severe responses to medication
What do you do when adverse responses to medications occur?
discontinues medication immediately
prolonged intake of a medication accumulating in the blood
What are toxic effects caused from?
impaired metabolism or excretion
What are antidotes?
treat specific types of medication toxicity
unpredictable effects from medications where patient overreacts or underreacts
sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of pharynx and larynx, severe wheezing and shortness of breath
raised, irregular shaped skin eruptions
small raised vesicles usually reddened
itching of skin
inflammation of mucous membranes lining nose
when one medication modifies the action of another
combined medication effect is greater than effect of when medication is given separately
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