Gen Cell Bio Test 2- Review
Terms in this set (58)
Two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.
What does a peptide bond do?
a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). This is a dehydration synthesis reaction (also known as a condensation reaction), and usually occurs between amino acids.
What are the four levels of protein folding?
What causes denaturation of protein?
high temperature and extreme pH
Some denaturation is reversible is the internal amino acid can be exposed.
What is the most abundant organic compound on Earth?
Example of protein, tell where it fits.
What is the function of a glyosidic bond?
a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
What two shapes of protein do we find held in the secondary protein level?
the alpha helix and the beat pleated sheet
What makes up a nucleotide?
a 5 pentose (carbon) sugar
a phosphate group
and a nitrogen base
What is the difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA is single stranded, DNA is double stranded.
DNA A-T and C-G
RNA A-U and C-G
there is no thymine in RNA
What are the monomers of protein?
An amino acid is a monomer, or the building block, of proteins.
GTP and ATP belong in which organic compound group?
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
During dehydration synthesis, what is lost?
a water molecule between 2 compounds
What is the function of a chaperonin protein?
the class of protein molecules that assists in proper folding of proteins.
Inappropriate proteins are captured by chaperonins and put in a molecular cage.
What type of bond do we get in a disaccharide when it has an alpha and beta link?
What is the correct base pairing from RNA to DNA?
RNA- A-U C-G
DNA- A-T C-G
Dehydration Synthesis sequence
monomer 1-OH monomer 2-HO > h20 and o
water is the byproduct of dehydration synthesis
What are the nucleotides of DNA?
adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
What is a structural isomer?
isomers that have the same component atoms but arranged differently from each other
What vitamin do we get Rhodopsin from?
Vitamin A, it is used for vision
Define and Differentiate
Starch: a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glyosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store.
Cellulose: A polysaccharide, that is composed of glucose monomers and is the main constituent of the cell walls of plants.
Glycogen: A branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in liver and muscle cells, and functions as secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells. Sometimes referred to as animal starch.
both starch and cellulose are composed of glucose but have different chemical and physical properties and functions.
starch can be broken down into enzymes, cellulose cannot.
starch is helical, cellulose is straight.
starch and glycogen are both storage compounds for plants and animals.
Which is considered a saturated fat or unsaturated fat?
saturated fats: C with a single bond, saturated with H.
Examples: margarine, cheese, ice-cream, coconut oil, palm oil
unsaturated fats: one or more double bonds between C.
Examples: salmon, trout, almonds, walnuts, avocados, vegetable oils.
What is a hydrocarbon?
an organic compound made of nothing more than carbons and hydrogens
How do we define hydrolysis?
a chemical reaction where something reacts with water and is changed into a new substance
example: starch to glucose
How do we form triglycerides?
3 fatty acids and one glycerol
C-1 alpha linkage, with a C-4, maltose is formed, what forms with a B linkage?
What is an enantiomer?
each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
What is chitin?
a fibrous substance consisting of polysaccharides and forming the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi.
How do we define a protein?
Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by the base sequence of nucleotides
What is a functional group?
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.
Where do we find galactosamine?
What form does glucose exist 99% of the time?
How do we define an unsaturated fat?
a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain
What is cholesterol and what is it made up of?
a waxy type of lipid, a substance that is insoluble in water, like oil or fat. Specifically, it is a type of fat that is made up of four interlocked rings of carbon called a steroid.
Four major organic compounds, one is not a polymer, which one?
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
NOT a polymer= lipids
What is an enzyme?
proteins that are able to catalyze (i.e accelerate) biochemical reactions
What are tertiary proteins made up of?
a single polypeptide chain "backbone" with one or more protein secondary structures. Amino acid side chains may interact and bond in a number of ways.
Where do we find phospholipids?
What is a fat constructed of?
Which nucleotide is a purine and which is pyrimidines?
purine- adenine and guanine
pyrimidine- thymine and cytosine
Which vitamin protects us from oxidation reduction?
Which protein makes up keratin?
a secondary protein (alpha)
What is the function of primary proteins?
building and repairing of body tissues, regulation of body processes and formation of enzymes and hormones.
heterocyclic aromatic organic compound containing 4 nitrogen atoms, two carbon rings, and is made of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring
Which organic compound group has an N terminus and a C terminus?
During reproduction, information flows from DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, or RNA-DNA?
What types of fats are solid at room temperature?
What is an optical isomer?
each of two or more forms of a compound that have the same structure but are mirror images of each other and typically differ in optical activity.
Of the sub units of carbohydrates, which one is readily available as a glucose?
Do both glycogen and starch, have a 1-4 beta glyosidic link?
Of nucleic acids, which one is the energy source for protein synthesis?
Which lipid is the main source of carbohydrates in a popular protein bar?
Where do we find most of the cellulose on this planet?
What are Vander Waals forces?
a hydrophobic interaction where H bonds and ionic bonds help hold the four subunits together to form the Hemoglobin molecule.
types of proteins and their functions MATCHING pg 76
enzymatic protein-selective acceleration of chemical reactions, helps in digestion.
transport proteins- transport of substances. ex: o2 in blood, o2 in muscles, fatty acids, and lipids
storage proteins-storage of amino acids ex: iron in the spleen.
contractlie- muscle movement
defense proteins- protects against disease
hormonal protein- coordination of and organisms activities
receptor proteins- response of cell to chemical stimuli
Chemical groups MATCHING pg 63
hydroxyl -OH alcohol or ethanol
carbonyl >C=O Ketone (acetone) or aldehyde (propanal)
carboxyl -COOH Carboxylic acid or organic acid
amino -NH2 Amine
sulfhydryl -SH Thiol
phosphate -OPO3^2- Organic phosphate
methyl -CH3 Methylated compound
Amino Acids of proteins MATCHING pg 77
9 Nonpolar side chains; hydrophobic
6 Polar side chains; hydrophilic
5 Electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic
ACIDS: NEGATIVE CHARGE
BASES: POSITIVE CHARGE