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Psychology Chapter 5 Test
Terms in this set (31)
Sensation is to ________ as perceptiopn is to _____________.
Bottom-up processing ; top-down processing
The process by which we organize and interpret sensory information is called
Subliminal stimuli are
Below our absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Another term for difference threshold is the
Just noticeable difference
Weber's law states that for a difference to be perceived, two stimuli must differ by
A constant minimum percentage
Sensory adaptation helps us focus on
Important changes in the environment
Our perceptual set influences what we perceive. This mental tendency reflects our
Experiences, assumptions, and expectations.
The characteristic of light that determines the color we experience, such as blue or green, is
The amplitude of a sound wave determines our perception of loudness. The amplitude of a light wave determines our perception of
The blind spot in your retina is located where
The optic nerve leaves the eye
Cones are the eye's receptor cells that are especially sensitive to _______ light and are responsible for our ____________ vision.
Bright ; Color
The cells in the visual cortex that respond to certain lines, edges, and angles are called
The brains ability to process many aspects of an object or a problem simultaneously is called
Two theories together account for color vision. The Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory shows that the eye contains ____________, and the opponent-process theory accounts for the nervous system's having
Three types of color receptor's ; opponent-process cells
What mental processes allow you to perceive a lemon as yellow?
Your brain constructs this perception of color in two stages. In the first stage., the lemon reflects light energy into your eyes, where it is transformed into neural messages. Three sets of cones, each sensitive to a different light frequency (red, blue, and green) process color. In this case, the light energy stimulates both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones. In the second stage, opponent-process cells sensitive to paired opposites of color (red/green, yellow/blue, and black/white) evaluate the incoming neural messages as they pass through your optic nerve to the thalamus and visual cortex. When the yellow-sensitive opponent- process cells are stimulates, you identify the lemon as yellow.
Our tendencies to fill in the gaps and to perceive a pattern as continuous are two different examples of the organizing principle called
In listening to a concert, you attend to the solo instrument and perceive the orchestra as accompaniment. This illustrates the organizing principle of
The visual cliff experiments suggest that
Crawling human infants and very young animals perceive depth.
Depth perception underlies our ability to
Two examples of _________ depth cues are interposition and linear perspective
Perceiving a tomato as consistently red, despite lighting shifts, is an example of
After surgery to restore vision, patients who had been blind from birth had difficulty
Recognizing objects by sight.
In experiments, people have worn glasses that turned their visual fields upside down. After a period of adjustment, they learned to function quite well. This ability is called
The snail-shaped tube in the inner ear, where sound waves are converted into neural activity, is called the
What are the basic steps in transforming sound waves into perceived sound?
The outer ear collect sound waves, which are translated into mechanical waves by the middle ear and turned into fluid waves in the inner ear. The auditory nerve then translates the energy into electrical waves and sends them to the brain, which perceives and interprets the sound.
Of the four skin senses that make up our sense of touch, only ___________ has its own identifiable receptor cells
We have specialized nerve receptors for detecting which five tastes? How did this ability aid our ancestors?
We have specialized receptors for detecting sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes. Being able to detect pleasurable tastes enabled our ancestors to seek out energy-and protein-rich foods. Detecting aversive tastes deterred them from eating toxic substances, increasing their chances of survival.
____________ is your sense of body position and movement. Your ___________ ___________ specifically monitors your head's movement,. with sensors in the inner ear.
Kinesthesia ; vestibular sense
Why do you feel a little dizzy immediately after a roller-coaster ride?
Your vestibular sense regulates balance and body positioning through kinesthetic receptors triggered by fluid in your inner ear. Wobbly legs and a spinning world are signs that these receptors are still responding to the ride's turbulence. As your vestibular sense adjusts to solid ground, your balance will be restored.
A food's aroma can greatly enhance its taste. This is an example of
Which of the following ESP events is supported by solid, replicable scientific evidence?
None of these answers.
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