Unit 2: American Revolution Study Guide
Terms in this set (32)
Philosophical and intellectual movement that began in Europe during the 18th century which stressed application of reason to solve social and scientific problems
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
(1730s and 1740s) Religious movement characterized by emotional preaching (Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield). The first cultural movement to unite the Thirteen Colonies. Associated with the democratization of religion.
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
English preacher who toured the colonies who, like Franklin, symbolized the powerful cultural force of the Atlantic, his audiences included all groups of people in American society, he was a Calvinist who accepted all Christians
Great Awakening's Impact on Colonial Society
The idea of "New Birth of Christ" caused all men and women to rethink the basic ideas of church and state, institutions, and society causing different people to come together in a new belief. Colonists learned to question their own ways of life.
Elected members of a legislature, who were usually of the upper, elite class, were obliged to preserve the colonial liberties
English Common Law
English-Parliament had supremacy over the king and all dominions of their constitution. The English constitution was not concrete and was easily changed when needed. The members of Parliament didn't agree with the division or sharing of sovereignty.
Colonial- Colonists defended the powers of the colonial assemblies, and overtime expanded the assemblies' power to policy making and routine administration. The colonists only accepted legitimate representation in Parliament.
King George's War (1743-1748)
War of Austrian Succession, colonists had fought for Louisburg but in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain returned Louisburg to the French
Albany Plan (1754)
Benjamin Franklin's vision of a Grand Council of elected delegates from each colony to oversee matters of common defense, expansion, and Indian affairs, with representation of Parliament. The plan was never adopted.
French and Indian War/ The Seven Years War (1756-1763)
Britain declared war on France, William Pitt took control of navy and army, Pitt gained Louisburg, General Wolfe and his troops attacked the French at Quebec, Peace Of Paris
A powerful,self-confident minister and military stalemate in George II"s cabinet, who was determined to expel the French from the North American Continent at all costs
French fortress in Cape Breton Island, which was first captured by the colonists and given back at the end of George's War, enraging the colonists, and was recaptured in the Seven Year's war.
Consequences of the Seven Years War
Colonists were forced to work together on an unprecedented scale
Exposed the colonists to the new territories, full of possibilities
Helped train American officers, like George Washington
British officials accused the colonists of being ungrateful for their help
Colonists confused about why they're involved in imperial wars and why Britain ignores the colonies when negotiating treaties
Proclamation Act of 1763
British government prohibited governors from granting land beyond the Appalachian Mountains, stopped settlers from moving westward, colonists felt that the army was obstructing their economic development
Sugar Act (1764)
An act that raised tax revenue in the colonies for the crown. It also increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
Stamp Act (1765)
Direct tax that required printed materials to be printed on paper with a stamp from Parliament in London
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
Congress convened in New York on October 17. The colonies discussed the problems and drafted petitions to the King and Parliament. The Act was repealed a year later.
A movement that was enforced by the Sons of Liberty which stopped people from buying English goods in an attempt to get English to can the stamp and tea acts
Declaratory Act (1766)
Parliament declared complete control over all the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Townshend Acts (1767)
Taxes on glass, lead, paper, paints, tea: customs collections tightened in America
Boston Massacre of 1770
A group of young boys were taunting British soldiers by throwing rocks and snowballs at them. The mob grew and became more threatening. In the confusion, the Redcoats opened fire, killing 5 Americans.
Quebec Act (1774)
Parliament made plans to establish a new civil government for the Canadian province of Quebec
Second Continental Congress (1775)
They met after the colonists defeated the redcoats at Concord. In Philadelphia, Congress took leadership of the war, organizing the colonies. George Washington became the Commander and Chief of the Continental Army.
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence and the establishment of a republican government in America
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Thomas Jefferson, a Virginian lawyer and planter, wrote the Declaration, consisting of grievances against the King and his government. "all men are created equally"
Local patriotic men and boys who assembled to fight against the British
Colonial militias at the beginning of the war
They did not lack confidence, after the battles of Lexington and Concord because they believed their actions proved that the yeomen farmers could take the Redcoats. George Washington made the colonists change their impulsive ways because they needed to have careful planning and tough discipline.
Wethersfield, Connecticut 1750-1780s
It became more politically democratic because more people were allowed to vote and did vote. More people were elected, as well. Religiously, overtime there was more religious tolerance.
Causes of the American Revolution- Degler
National consciousness was a major factor because the colonists saw themselves as their own people, completely different from the English and their culture.
How did the colonists gain independence from the greatest military power in the world?
The Battle of Saratoga convinced the French to be allies of the colonies because it showed that they were a formidable force and they were serious about their resolve.
At the Battle of Trenton, George Washington and his troops crossed the Delaware River and caught 900 Hessians by surprise because General Howe had dispersed his troops across New Jersey.
At the Battle of Yorktown, the French and Washington has encircled Cornwallis, forcing him to surrender his entire army, which ended the fighting.
Revolutionary War's Impact on African Americans
Could run away and fight for the British or Patriots
Gain freedom if fought for British
They didn't believe in the war because it didn't pity them the way it was pitying the colonists
If a skilled slave, sent to do other jobs and kept the money
Own time to do own jobs on plantation
Decline in harsh discipline on plantations
Lower South- the war caused owners to be absent and isolated the slave population more