Medical Aspect Vision/Eye (Rehab Counseling)

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 55
Terms in this set (55)
CataractClouding of the natural lens of the eye, usually caused by aging in conjunction with other risk factors, such as exposure to the sun's UV rays, smoking, steroid intake and diabetes. Symptoms include blurred vision, glare, halos around lights, and dull colorsCMV retinitis (cytomegalovirus retinitis)Serious eye infection usually found in those with immune problems, such as AIDS patients; symptoms include floaters, blind spots, blurry vision and vision loss.ColobomaMost commonly, a cleft in the iris, making an irregularly shaped pupil. The pupil will often look like a keyhole or upside-down pear. Colobomas can also affect other eye structures, such as the eyelid, retina and optic nerve; only iris and eyelid colobomas are visible with the naked eye.Color blindnessPartial or total inability to distinguish specific colors. Color blindness is inherited, and is much more common in men than in women.ConeA photosensitive receptor in the retina that allows color vision.ConjunctivaMucous membrane that lines the visible part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.ConjunctivitisInflammation of the conjunctiva, characterized by a pink eye.CorneaThe clear part of the eye covering the iris and pupil; it lets light into the eye, permitting sight.Corneal abrasionA scratch or divot of the cornea, typically due to minor trauma (contact lens trauma, a sports injury, dirt or another foreign body, etc.). Symptoms include blurred vision, foreign body sensation, grittiness, light sensitivity, eye pain or discomfort, and tearing. Corneal edema Swelling of the eye's cornea.Corneal ulcerAn infected corneal abrasion.Diabetic retinopathyCaused by leaking of retinal blood vessels in severe or long-term diabetes, affecting the macula or retina. Most people have no symptoms at first, but can develop blurred near vision, double vision, floaters, retinal/vitreous hemorrhages, and in late stages, vision loss.DiplopiaAlso called double vision. When two images of the same object are perceived by one or both eyes.FixationThe eye's ability to maintain gaze upon an object.FloatersA dark or gray spot or speck that passes across the field of vision that moves as the eye moves. Floaters are very common and are caused by the bits of vitreous humor that float in the liquid vitreous.GlaucomaDisease characterized by elevated intraocular pressure, which causes optic nerve damage and subsequent peripheral vision loss. Most people have no initial symptoms of chronic (open-angle) glaucoma, but peripheral vision loss, headaches, blurred vision, difficulty adapting to darkness and halos around lights can develop.HyperopiaAlso called farsightedness. Condition in which the length of the eye is too short, causing light rays to focus behind the retina rather than on it, resulting in blurred near vision. Additional symptoms include eyestrain and squinting.LASEK (Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis)Procedure that is similar to LASIK, except that the surgeon cuts a flap in the epithelium only. LASEK is used mostly for people with thin or flat corneas who are poor candidates for LASIK, which requires more corneal tissue for success.LASIK (Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis)Surgical procedure in which a tiny flap is cut in the top of the cornea, underlying corneal tissue is removed with a laser, and the flap is put back in place. LASIK corrects myopia, Hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia.Lens1. The spherical body in the eye, located behind the cornea that focuses light rays onto the retina. 2. A device used to focus light into the eye in order to magnify or minify images, or otherwise correct visual problems. Eyeglass lenses, contact lenses, and intraocular lenses are examples.Low visionAlso called partial sight. Sight that cannot be satisfactorily corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgery. Usually results from an eye disease such as glaucoma or macular degeneration.MaculaPart of the eye near the middle of the retina; the macula allows vision with great detail.Micro-corneaAbnormally small cornea.MicrophthalmiaCongenital defect resulting in an abnormally small eye or eyes. The cause is usually unknown. Typically results in blindness or reduced vision.NystagmusRapid and involuntary eye movement that is oscillating and non-chaotic. Blurred vision may result.OD (oculus dexter)Right eye.Ocular migraineVisual phenomena that may accompany a migraine headache or that may occur without any headache. They include light flashes, spots, wavy lines, flickers, lights, semi-circular or crescent-shaped visual defects and distortions of shapes.OphthalmologistA medical doctor (M.D.) who specializes in the eye.OpticianNot doctors, but in some states they must complete training and be licensed. And in some states they can, after special training, become certified to fit contact lenses. Most opticians sell and fit eyeglasses, sunglasses, and specialty eyewear that are made to prescription.Optic nervePart of the eye that carries stimuli from the rods and cones to the brain.OrbitEye socket.OS (oculus sinister)Left eye.OU (oculus unitas)Both eyes.PhakicAn eye that still has its natural lens. When an eye is aphakic, the lens has been removed.PresbyopiaCondition in which the aging eye beginning at around age 40 is unable to focus at all distances, often noticed when print begins to blur.PtosisDrooping eyelid. Caused by a problem with the muscle that lifts the eyelid. In adults, Ptosis is commonly caused by aging.PupilThe round, dark center of the eye, which opens and closes to regulate the amount of light the retina receives.Refractive errorWhen light rays don't properly refract from the cornea to the retina; can take the form of myopia (nearsightedness), Hyperopia (farsightedness) or astigmatism.RetinaThe sensory membrane that lines the eye; it is composed of several layers and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving images formed by the lens and converting them into signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.Retinal detachmentCondition where the retina separates from the Choroid. Causes include aging, surgery, trauma, inflammation, high myopia and diseases.RetinitisInflammation of the retina. Symptoms include blurred vision, floaters and vision loss.Retinitis PigmentosaUsually inherited condition characterized by progressive degeneration of the retina, resulting in night blindness and decreased peripheral vision.Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)An eye disease common in premature babies that involves abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina.StrabismusA misalignment of the eyes: the eye don't point at the same object together. Crossed eyes (esotropia) are one type of strabismus; "wall-eyes" (exotropia) are another. Appears to be a problem with the eye muscles.Visual acuitySharpness of vision, 20/20 is considered normal visual acuity, though some people can see even better (such as 20/15 or 20/10).Vitreous bodyPart of the eye between the lens and the retina, containing a clear jelly called the vitreous humor.