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Chapter 2
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Terms in this set (25)
Positional Numbering System
Numbering system where value of each digit depends on the digit itself and the position of the digit in the number
Binary
Base 2 positional numbering system. Uses the digits 0 and 1.
Bit
Binary Digit
Byte
Group of 8 bits
Overflow
Occurs when computer tries to represent a number that exceeds the maximum value
Binary Numbers
Used to store data internally for numerical values, letters, graphics, etc.
Two's Complement
Leftmost bit represents negative of its positional value
Sign/magnitude
Leftmost bit represents sign (0=positive, 1=negative)
Decimal
Base 10 positional numbering system (because humans have 10 fingers)
Octal
Base 8 positional numbering system (3 bits = 1 octal digit)
Hexadecimal
Base 16 positional numbering system (4 bits = 1 hex digit)
Bias (in context of floating point number)
fixed value subtracted from exponent (based on number of exponent bits)
half-precision floating point number
16 bit floating point number (first bit is sign, 5 bits for exponent, 10 bits for significand, bias=15)
Assumption (in context of floating point number)
There is always a 1 immidiately left of binary point. It is assumed/removed from significand. We save a bit by doing this.
Code Mapping
Assign each letter or symbol a unique number. Used to represent text in binary. Example: ASCII
ASCII
American standard code for information interchange (widely used 8 bit code mapping)
Unicode
16 and 32 bit code mapping to represent text
Digitizing
Converts an analog signal (like sound) to a digital number
Sampling
At fixed time intervals, the signal amplitude is measured and stored
Sampling rate
Number of times per second that we measure signal amplitude
bit depth
Number of bits used to store each sample
Pixel
picture element
RBG
The most common format for storing color images. Each pixel has (Red, Green, Blue)
Frame rate
Number of frames (images) shown per second of video.
Pixel bit depth
Number of bits used to store each RGB color
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