Terms in this set (32)
Popular 19th Century American belief that it was an exceptional nation with a god-given destiny to dominate and rule over the non-white races of America and other peoples of the world. based on its superior government(democracy), religion(Protestant Christianity), economic system (capitalism), and race (dominant white, Anglo-Saxon majority)
"closing the frontier"
In 1890, for the first time in the history of America, the frontier line in the west no longer existed. The impact of this was felt both physically, emotionally and for many decades. The people living in the area began to feel as though the right to rule their own lives were gone, the opportunity for escape into the wild was no longer available and the belief for growth no longer existed. On the other hand, American's began to realize that not having the frontier was really an invitation for the Americans to imperialize other contries and give them an oppurtunity to take over more territory.
In the late 19th century, countries in Europe had been successfully imperializing for a century. Their competitive drive to expand, known as the "imperialist fever" was one of the factors that motivated other countries such as the U.S. to expand as well. People who were eager to expand believed that countries without colonies would have a hard time becoming a powerful country in the modern industrial-imperial world. This eagerness to imperialize and "civilize" other countries led so many major powers to essentially take other countries for themselves.
Charles Darwin's belief that the animal world was continuously evolving and was able to adapt to changing environments. Social scientist Herbert Spencer saw this theory of evolution as "survival of the fittest" and applied it to the human race, calling it Social Darwinism. Social Darwism was used to justify colonial expansion, with the thought Europeans had the right to take over and force others to work for them. After all, Social Darwinists believed that their was a hierarchy of races, and Europenas were at the top with the most advantages just because they had conquered alot of terriotory and because they had several technological advances.
"The Influence of Seapower Upon History"
A revolutionary book regarding the significance of naval power. Written and published by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan in 1890. The book includes information about how Britain became more powerful through their naval forces. Mahan believed that in order to take over Hawaii and other Pacific islands, the US would need a defensive base in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Mahan's ideals became favorable and impacted America by making it one of the most powerful navys in the world by 1900.
Hawaii's islands acted as a way station providing American ships with the coal and supplies their steamships need to travel across the Pacific Ocean to Asia. China trade in the early 19th century
A person or group of people sent on a religious mission to preach Christianity in a forgien country.
A lagoon harbor on Oahu, Hawaii that served as a US naval base. It was attacked by the Japanese Navy in December of 1941, a surprise attack that killed over 2400 people, and led to the well-known quote "a date which will live in infamy".
Goods that are imported, exported, or sold in another country will not be taxed at customs. Before Hawaii was a state, there was a treaty between America and Hawaii that said no tax would be placed on Hawaiian sugar when it would be imported and sold in America.
global industrial capitalism
The rise of captialism that arose from a need to control ecomincs.
Secular apologists were people who argued that impirialism helped bring colonized people into the modern world.
The civil service is an independently governed system that is made up of mostly of professional officials who have been hired on the basis of their scores on a qualifying exam rather than elected.
The Spanish - American War
The Spanish- American War was known to the ambassador of America as " A Splended Little War". It started on February 15th,1898 when a ship carrying 266 Americans exploded, and on April 25th a representative from America stated that this called for war, even though the explosion was to be seen as an accident. Many agreed with the ambassador when he called the war "splendid" the only ones who didn't agree were the men fighting. While the war was declared in April it was over in August because Cuban rebels had weakened Spanish residence making it very easy for America to simply come in and finish. Only 460 Americas were killed in the battle. The battle did entail some struggles for Americans like food, ammunition, uniforms, guns, and medicine. A majority of the American soldiers were African Americans, some of them went voluntarily others were stationed on the frontier to defend white settlements, and were simply needed in battle.
Concentration Camps were a dumping ground for Fillipinos and their families. On Some Islands, communities were forced into these camps and Americans destroyed their homes making the Fillipinos suffer. While doing this some of the American soldiers treated them inhumanley and took pleasure in killing them.
The term began as a way to comment on the new technological possiblilities of printing in color Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, was using in his newspaper. The term changed into a reference of a sensational style of writing and printing that changed the way newspapers were made forever; journalism began to exaggerate reports and engage the working-class readers. The New York World and the New York Journal competed to be the greatest yellow journal. During the Cuban civil war, the two papers published aggressive, exaggerated reports that had no evidence to back them up; eventually, the papers began to get banned from schools, libraries and clubs, but not before impacting journalism.
William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer
These two men wrote under the syle known as yellow journalism in the 1880s and 90s. Using this style they revamped two newspaper publishing companies into sucussful businesses, the New York Work and New York Journal. They were the most influencial yellow journalers. They wrote the the truth and didn't fail to withhold any information. The stories were often exagerated, but striking and forcible, which "appealed" to middle class workers. Those characteristics were also what led them to be banned.
U.S.S. Maine Explosion
The United States battleship was blown up in an explosion during Cuba's uprising against Spain. This ship exploded on February 15th, 1898 at 9:40 p.m. in Havana Harbor, killing 268 people, and appalling the American people. The explosion of the ship was caused by a mine, resulting in the ships bottom to be blown out and sinking the ship completely.
Battle of San Juan Hill
On July 1st, 1898, during the Spanish-American War, the US defeat of El Carney lead to fighting in San Juan Hill. Soliders were killed and wounded while they waited for orders to continue fighting in the war; this being the bloodiest fight of the Spanish-American War. The Spanish left the Santiago Bay due to the US destroying all their ships, ending in the surrender of Santiago on July 17.
A cavalry unit which was at the center of fighting led by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, who had resigned from the Navy Department in order to be involved in the war. The Rough Riders were one of three Voluntary cavalries created during the Spanish American War, and the only one to witness the war. Roosevelt led them up Kettle Hill and his unit was the victor at San Juan Hill.
He started as the assistant secretary of the navy who set out to end the shame associated with his father by charging up Kettle Hill and becoming the hero of the Battle of San Juan Hill. He was an extreme imperialist that believed being an empire would benefit the country because it would rejuvenate the nation. In 1901, he became the 25th Vice President of the United States and then went on to be the 26th President from 1901-1909.
1917 Congress signed the Jones Act, declaring Puerto Rico a US territory and made all Puerto Ricans American citizens. The Sugar Industry flourished because of American markets no longer had tarriffs
The Battle for Cuba ended in armstice after Spanish forces surrendered. This came with terms for territories granted to the United States. Spain recognized the independence of Cuba and ceded control over Puerto Rico and the Pacific Island of Guam to the United States.
This country was under Spanish rule. The navy secretary during the 1890s was is Theodore Roosevelt and he realized that the war in Cuba gave the US a rare opportunity to expand its empire. Roosevelt responded to this opportunity by declaring war and sending ships towards this country. On May 1, 1898 in this country's capital, Commodore George Dewey quickly destroys the Spanish government and they soon surrender without much damage. Commodore Dewey becomes the first American hero of this war.
America had gained control of Puerto Rico from the Spanish during the Spanish-American War, and the US established a colonial government in place of their military rule after the war ended. The Jones Act was a 1917 act brought forward after the war that made Puerto Rico a US territory and granted all Puerto Ricans American citizenship. America did not hesitat to claim Puerto Rico as a territory because it was so close in proximity to the US.
Annexation of the Philippines
After the surrender of the Spanish government, the U.S. inherited all of Spain's old colonies, including the Philippine Islands. An intense debate was held in the U.S. over what the ultimate fate of the Philippines would be--independence or a colony of the U.S.? Ultimately, the U.S. Congress voted to annex the Philippines as a U.S. Territory with a promise for ultimate independence, which was granted in 1945.
Treaty of Paris, 1898
This treaty was an agreement with Spain to give up nearly all of the Spanish Empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. This was the formal end to the Spanish American War and was signed in December of 1898.
A group of powerful, upper class men who came together in 1898 to oppose adding the Phillipines as an American territory. They worried about America's involvement with another country, the diverse people and workers that would be coming into America and complications with foreign allicances.
The U.S. Congress required Cuba to adopt the Platt Amendment to its constitution. It gave the U.S. the right to veto acts of Cuba's democratically elected representative and to lease certain parts of Cuba for very long terms--Guantanamo Bay, for example.
The influance that America was having on Cuba's economy and military caused there to be some revolts against the Cuban governmet. In some cases, U.S. military had to step in to stop the revolts
The Philippine War
The Philippine War was caused by the U.S governments wish to have an overseas empire and the Filipinos need for freedom. However, the war truly began after the Philippines went against the terms of the Treaty of Paris which stated the U.S had control over the Philippines. After this, the Philippine Republic declared war with the United States. The conflict began a 3 year battle, which resulted in victory for the United States, meaning the Philippines continued to be territory of the U.S. This war was one of the longest in American wars and one of the most vicious, causing 4,300 American deaths.
Recognized as the first and youngest president of the Philippines, he led Philippine forces against Spain in the Philippine War, the Spanish-American War, and finally against the United States during the Philippine-American War. In March of 1901, he was captured by Americans which led to the end of his presidency. He later signed a document that declared his allegiance to the United States, as well as advising his followers to stop fighting.
Hays' "Open Door" Note
A policy first initiated by McKinley in 1898, to prevent war due to trading. Later revised by John Hays saying that no nation that is trading with China (spheres of influence) shall have any special priveleges; all countries would trade equally with China. Some of the countries that adopted this policy are England, Germany, Russia, France, Japan and Italy.