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Florida Institute of Animal Arts access

intact males


male calf

bull calf

female calf (until she has a calf)


castrated male


gestation period

9 months


100.4-102.8, 60-70, 18-28

naturally dehorned


calf vaccination

8 weeks

time used to rid meat of antibiotics

withdrawal period

toxic plant that causes diarrhea


toxic flowering bush


digestive system



first and largest chamber in the stomach where micro organisms break down feed (develops last and is the reason for easy absorption of newborns colostrum)


second chamber in the stomach prevents indigestible objects from entering the stomach (has "honeycomb" pattern on its inner surface)


third chamber in the stomach absorbs water (dehydration area, removes 60-70% of the water)


(fourth chamber in the stomach and the only one that is a) true stomach

calf management procedures

branding, dehorn (done b4 2 months), castrate (done @2-3 days), deworming, vaccinations (start @8weeks)

beef cattle production systems

cow-calf operations, back grounding systems, feedlots

cow-calf production

adult beef cattle kept to raise calves for sale in other states

back grounding system

growing calves to enter a feedlot at another location


type of animal feeding operation (AFO) which is used for finishing (fattening) livestock (prior to slaughter.)

Bovinae genus


Bovinae species (B. p.)

taurus (European), indicus (India)


removing animals from a herd (that are not as productive or desirable as the others in the herd)

stimulates the let down of milk


number of teats


main ingredient of milk


two ectoparasites

cattle grub (fly), Lice (horseflies, deerflies, stable flies, horn flies)


flukes (flatworm), lungworms (roundworm), threadworms (strongyloides papillosus, pin/roundworm) (toxocara vitulorum (roundworm), trichuris (whipworm), nematodirus helvetianus (roundworm), tapeworms, stomach worms

upper teeth

dental pad

fingerlike projections of the stomach


upper respiratory infection (IBR)

infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

chronic wasting disease

Johne's Disease

transmitted via contaminated meat and bone meal (BSE)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)

disease localizes in the reproductive organs


vitamin B deficiency

Metabolic Bone Disease

low blood calcium levels

Milk Fever (hypocalcemia)

deficiency of magnesium

Grass Tetany (hypomagnesemia)

most frequently encountered toxicoses

lead, organophosphates and carbamates

vaccines available

bovine; herpesvirus, parainfluenza virus, viral diarrhea virus, viral pneumonia (blackleg, e. coli, leptospirosis, louping III, lungworm, pasteurella, rotavirus, salmonella, tetanus, ...)

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