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AP BIO 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 39 VOCAB (UNIT 5)
Terms in this set (90)
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants
In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds-seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers
The main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
An informal name for any member of the phylum Pterophyta, which includes ferns, horsetail, whisk ferns, and the genus Tmesipteris
Long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground. Rhizoids are not composed of tissues, lack specialized conducting cells, and do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil
An adaptation of terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat
seedless vascular plant
The informal collective name for the phyla Lycophyta (club mosses and their relatives) and Pteridophyta (ferns and their relatives)
In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant
A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all living species except mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant
The mutual evolutionary influence between two different species interacting with each other and reciprocally influencing each other's adaptation
A member of the largest gymnosperm phylum. Most conifers are cone-bearing trees, such as pines and firs
A seed leaf of an angiosperm embryo. Some species have one cotyledon, others two
In angiosperms, the transfer of pollen from an anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species
A term traditionally used to refer to flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons. Recent molecular evidence indicates that dicots do not form a clade
A clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons
In an angiosperm, a short stem with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction
A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.
Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant
A clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embyonic seed leaf, or cotyledon.
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules, a process that is a prerequisite for fertilization
A term describing any plant organ that grows in an atypical location, such as roots growing from stems
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year of growing season
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch. The bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem
All tissues external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without straining growth
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells
dermal tissue system
The outer protective covering of plants.
A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached
fibrous root system
A root system common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots spreading out below the soil surface
ground tissue system
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support
Referring to non-woody plants
A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, from which leaves arise.
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type
A flowering plant that lives for many years.
Ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder.
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
Growth produced by lateral meristems, which thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.
A root system common to eudicots consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.
An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that adds layers of secondary vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem.
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.
Limp. A walled cell is flaccid in surroundings where there is no tendency for water to enter.
The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants.
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi.
To shrink and pull away from a cell wall, or when a plant cell protoplast pulls away from the cell wall as a result of water loss.
The evaporative loss of water from a plant.
Very firm. A walled cell become turgid if it has a greater solute concentration than its surroundings, resulting in entry of water.
The force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis.
The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
The drooping of leaves and stems as a result of plant cells becoming flaccid.
The alternation of planting a non-legume one year and a legume the next year to restore concentration of fixed nitrogen in the soil
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants
root-colonizing bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with many plants
layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath
Long-term productive farming methods that are environmentally safe
The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die
A plant whose flowering is not affected by photoperiod
The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening.
Plant morphological adaptations for growing in darkness
A response of a plant or animal to gravity
In multicellular organisms, one of many types of circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells to change their functioning
A plant that flowers (usually in late spring or early summer) only when the light period is longer than a critical length
Effects of light on plant morphology
A physiological response to photoperiod, the relative lengths of night and day. An example of photoperiodism is flowering
A class of light receptors in plants. Mostly absorbing red light, these photoreceptors regulate many plant responses, including seed germination and shade avoidance
A small, non-protein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein
A response in plants to chronic mechanical stimulation, resulting from increased ethylene production. An example is thickening stems in response to strong winds.
A directional growth of a plant in response to touch
A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation
The use of cold treatment to induce a plant to flower
A term describing a pathogen against which a plant has little specific defense
region of soil that is immediately adjacent to and affected by plant roots
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