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39 terms

Human Anatomy 091410

2nd Class
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Deep Fascia
This is the outermost connective tissue part of the muscle.
Epimysium
This is the outside layer surrounding skeletal muscle, while surrounding the collection of muscle fibers called fascicles.
Fasicles
What are bundles of skeletal muscle fibers called?
Skeletal Muscle
This has multinucleated cells (more than one nucleus). One muscle cell is made up by many fibrils. Each myofibril is composed of myofilaments (filaments). What kind of muscle is this (skeletal / smoothe / cardiac)?
Sarcolemma
This is the muscle fiber of a cell membrane (inside a muscle cell. Glycogen is inside, along with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., etc. There are openings in the sarcolemma (invaginations) knows as a "T" tubule.
Myoglobin
Oxygen-binding protein found in the sarcoplasm.
T Tubule
This is an invagination in the sarcoplasm.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
This is wrapped around the myofibril (channels). the widened areas are called the terminal cisterns. Name it.
Calcium
What is stored in the terminal cisterns?
Binding
Are actin and myosin binding or regulatory proteins?
Regulatory
Are troponin and tropomycin regulatory or binding proteins?
Thin Filaments
_________filaments are made up by these (3) proteins: actin, tropomyocin and troponin.
Tropomycin
This protein blocks myocin from the binding site at rest. Name it.
Troponin
This protein loves calcium and when it binds it moves tropomycin away and exposes the binding site. Name this protein.
Thick Filaments
______filaments are made up of myosin molecules (proteins). They look like golf clubs that are twisted. They also have ATP binding sites and myosin heads or cross bridges. Name these kinds of filaments.
sarcomeres
These are repeating patterns down a muscle.
Z Discs
These are the "bookends" of a sarcomere that anchor to proteins. Name it.
I Band
This is part of the microfibril after the Z Disc where there is no thick filament. Name this band:
M Line
This is the name for the center line that holds myosin together in a sarcomere. Name it.
Thin
_______filaments must slide over thick in order to make the muscle contract.
sarcolemma / T / sarcoplasmic reticulum
Nerve stimulation from motor neuron must take place via ACH (acetylcholine) to be released from end of neuron to transmit action potential to the _________. Once the action potential is depolarized, it has to travel down the______tubule (which contacts the terminal cistern) or sarcoplasmic reticulum to open calcium channels in the ______________ (terminal cluster) that are in the cell membrane. The calcium is released (floods it) into the sarcoplasm.
Rigor Mortis
When no ATP is available to disengage the myosin and actin, this causes what condition (seen after death).
ATP Production
These (3) sources for this process are: Creatinine Phosphate, 2) glycolysis (anaerobic) or 3) Krebs Cycle and oxidative phosphorlation. Name the process.
Creatinine Phosphate
This way to produce ATP combines CP + ADP = ATP + Creatinine. It is already in the muscle cell, and can donate a phosphate to make ATP. It gets used up quickly and can be sublimented. Name it.
Glycolysis
This process of ATP production is aerobic (no oxygen needed). It turns glucose into pyruvic acid to oxidize glucose. This process does not make a lot of ATP, although it is made quickly. Pyruvic acid converts to glucose and lactic acid from too much glucose (goes to the blood, then the liver, and produces either glucose or lactic acid. Name this process.
Krebs Cycle
This process of ATP production happens when a lot of oxygen is being brought in, a lot of ATP is made via the e-transport chain. Name this process.
Isometric Contraction
This type of contraction means "same length" and engages the muscle(s) to create tone. The myosin head engages actin and doesn't shorten the sarcomere. This is not the optimal way to build muscle.
Isotonic Contraction
This type of contraction means "same tone." The contraction can either be "concentric" or "Eccentric." Name it.
Concentric
This type of contraction under isotonic contraction shortens the muscle and is the optimal way to increase strength.
Esscentric
This type of contraction under isotonic contraction lengthens contraction (i.e. - sitting slowly). Flexion will pull apart the muscle. Name it.
Slow Oxidative
These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle fibers t.hat are the thinnest with least amount of myofibrils in it. They are endurance fibers (AKA - red fibers that have a lot of myoglobin that binds the oxygen). They engage slowly. Name them.
Fast Glycolytic
These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle fiber that hydrolizes ATP faster. They are the largest muscle fibers in the body (like those used by sprinters). Name them.
Fast-Oxidative Glycolytic
These muscles are a group type of skeletal muscle between the (2) slow oxidative and (2) fast glycolytic. Name it.
Smooth Muscle
This type of muscles or muscle group is found in any organ or structure in the body that has something moving through it. Hormones also go to this system (sympathetic and para sympathetic) and have more nerve fibers that go to this group. Hormones also go there for contraction or relaxation. Name it.
Single Unit Smooth Muscle
This is the most common smooth muscle. The whole muscle responds to stimulation asa single unit. They are either spindle or squamous shaped. Gap junctions (made of proteins) allow the stimulations to stimulate travel from one muscle cell to another. If you stretch the organ, it will want to contract in a single unit smooth muscle. Name this group of muscles.
Multi-Units Smooth Muscle
These muscle groups have NO gap junctions. Each cell responds independently and the muscles behave as multiple units. They are richly innervated by branches of the autonomic nervous system.
Stress Relaxation Response of Smooth Muscle
When this type of muscle stretches, there is tension. At a certain point, it then relaxes (i.e. - like the stomach accomodating more food. Name this process.
Smooth Muscle
This filaments are attached to dense bodies. Intermediate bodies connect dense bodies. Thin filaments in smooth muscle don't have troponin. The mechanism of muscle contraction is induced by a significant amount of calcium found in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic reticulum through the extracellular space via calcium channels (integral proteins) via hormones or autonomic nervous system. Name if this is the anatomy of smooth or skeletal muscle.
Camodulin
This is a protein in cytoplasm that has a high affinity for calcium. A calcium / calmodulin complex is found in smooth muscle. It activates an enzyme called "myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)" and phosphorylates the myosin head (adding a phosphate to the myosin head). It then binds ADP to make ATP to engage, power strike, and disengage. Myosin light chain phosphotase becomes active as calcium decrease, and it de-phosphorlates the myosin head. Name this protein.