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Social Stats Exam 1
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Terms in this set (24)
Statistics
a set of procedures used by social scientists to organize, summarize, and communicate information
Dependent Variable
Variable to be explained
Independent Variable
Variable expected to account for the dependent variable
Nominal Level of Measurement
Number or other symbols assigned to a set of categories for the purpose of naming, labeling, or classifying the observation
Ordinal Level of Measurement
Numbers are assigned to rank-ordered categories ranging from low to high
Interval-Ratio Level of Measurement
Measurements for all cases are expressed in the same units
Continuous
Does not have a minimum-sized unit measurement
Dichotomous
A variable that has only two values
Percentage
A relative frequency obtained by dividing the frequency in each category by the total number of cases and multiplying by 100
Proportion
A relative frequency obtained by dividing the frequency in each category by the total number of cases
Relative Frequency
Same as "Rate"
Bar Graph
A graph showing the differences in frequencies or percentages among categories of a nominal or an ordinal variable
Pie Chart
A graph showing the differences in frequencies or percentages among categories/attributes
Histogram
A graph showing the differences in frequencies or percentages among categories of an interval-ratio variable
Line Graph
A graph of frequency or percentage of different values related to an interval-ratio variable
Box Plot
A graph showing the differences in frequencies or percentages among categories of a nominal or an ordinal variable
Measures of Central Tendency
Categories or scores that describe what is average or typical of the distribution
Mode
The category or score with the highest frequency (or percentage) in the distribution
Median
The score that divides the distribution into two equal parts so that half the cases are above it and half below it
Mean
A measure of central tendency that is obtained by adding up all the scores and dividing by the total number of scores. It is the arithmetic average.
Bimodal
When there are two substantial frequencies that could be used for the mode
Range
The measure of variation in interval-ratio variables. It is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in the distribution
Variance
A measure of variation for interval-ratio variables; it is the average of the squared deviations from the mean
Standard Deviation
A measure of variation for interval-ratio variables; it is equal to the square root of the variance.
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