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Harding University Psy 380 Cameron Test #3
Terms in this set (45)
Describe Rogers' familial and educational backgrounds and how these may have influenced his theory
• He grew up on an Illinois farm in a conservative Christian home. He was an American full of optimism and adventure. He first studied agriculture, then theology, education, and psychology.
• He conducted ground-breaking research on the therapeutic process, and taught that non-therapists could learn the basic skills to be effective helpers
A philosophically positive view of human nature even within a theological framework
Study of your conscious perception of the world (this is in the realm of Freud's ego, but Freud gave relatively little power to ego)
The extent to which the person behaves in accord with his or her self as opposed to behaving in terms of roles that foster false self-perceptions (being true to your experience)
The self-concept, your conscious perception of yourself from your interactions with others
The self you most want to be
Experience or Organism
• Experience: refers to your natural gut reactions, feelings, and senses of things
• Organism: The naturally experiencing person
One's basic drive toward growth and wholeness (instead of Freud's tension reduction we seek growth and tension)
Our drive for consistency between our self and ideal self, and our self and experience.
The lack of consistency between our self and ideal self, and our self and experience -this conflict causes anxiety.
Origin of Incongruence
If our parents provide only conditional worth, we cannot live according to our deep, natural, organismic experience but must deny it. We must wear the mask (the inauthentic self, derived from our parents' view of us). We come to distrust our experience.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers: view of persons and structure of personality:
• Freud's view of persons: Not a positive view of human nature. Humans are products of unconscious forces (sex and aggression) based on evolutionary principles.
• Rogers' view of persons: Positive view of human beings. By nature humans are growth-seeking. Conscious perceptions and processes are important and considered generally trustworthy.
• Freud's structure of personality: superego (morality and conscience), ego (conscious reality), and id (unconscious drives)
• Rogers' structure of personality: ideal self, self-concept, and our natural positive inner-experience
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers: process (motives) -must the motives theorized by Freud and Rogers be in conflict with each other? Explain your answer
• Freud: motives are based on tension reduction through the expression of sexual and aggressive drives
• Rogers: motives are tension seeking and include self-actualization and congruence between self and experience and the self and ideal self
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers: developmental issues and approaches
• Freud: psychosexual development was concentrated in first 5-6 years of life. Freud was very detailed about stages and conflicts.
• Rogers: focused on early childhood, though he did not hypothesize specific developmental stages. Rogers focuses upon the development of the self and the importance of learning to trust one's organism. Healthy development primarily depends upon the parents providing empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers: pathology. Specifically, describe the conflict models of each and how defenses come into play.
• Freud: conflict model focusing on defenses, anxiety, symptoms, and fixation in stages. Freud emphasizes the conflict between id and superego and between id and ego.
• Rogers: also a conflict model focusing on conflict between the self and experience and the self and ideal self. Incongruence is caused when parental conditions of worth do not allow the self to develop in accordance with the person's organismic experience and potential. Subception is a process of the recognition of conflict between one's self and experiences and the utilization of defenses such as denial and distortion, as well as other defenses that are basically consistent with Freud's defenses.
Compare and contrast Freud and Rogers: counseling approaches and the rationale behind them.
• Freud's counseling approaches: Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test
• Freud's rationale: purpose was to make the unconscious conscious and to allow the ego greater awareness and control through the use of psychoanalysis. To be a successful psychoanalyst required years of specialized training and personal analysis.
• Rogers' counseling approaches: it is both necessary and sufficient for change for the counselor to provide empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard. Rogerian therapy included: client-centered approach, phenomenological approach, non-directive approach, and a reflection of feelings.
• Rogers' Rationale: through providing the therapeutic conditions of empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard, the client will naturally become aware of and express his direct experience that may be in conflict with the self-concept due to parental conditions of worth. The provision of these therapeutic conditions was both necessary and sufficient to allow change to occur. Interpretation, advice, and behavioral strategies were not necessary because it was assumed that the person's own growth tendencies and experiences were better guides to health than those of an outside therapist. Lay persons could be trained to provide the therapeutic conditions, thus individuals in businesses, schools, churches, and other groups could be taught to provide basic counseling for everyday problems.
How do assessment approaches differ between psychodynamic and phenomenological theorists? Explain the reason for the difference.
• Freud: followers of Freud created methods that tapped the unconscious through the use of ambiguous stimuli (Rorschach Inkblot and TAT)
• Rogers: trusted the person's conscious perceptions, thus the techniques that flowed from his approach tap conscious perceptions of the self: Q-sort, Semantic Differential, and Adjective Checklist.
What are three ways to measure self-concept?
Q-sort, Adjective Checklist, and Semantic Differential.
Place statements/cards about the self into seven piles ranging from not at all like me to a lot like me
Check characteristics from a list that are like you
Rate your traits on a continuum -check the level that fits
Explain the subception process:
The defense system that recognizes information that is incongruent with the self and calls out the defenses
Explain how the defense system works to keep conflict from awareness
Defense System: Freud's concept for those mental strategies used by the person to reduce anxiety. They function to exclude from awareness some thought, wish, or feeling. They protect from anxiety by blocking id energy from awareness. They channel the id impulses in socially appropriate ways. Defenses maintain the self-concept in the face of incongruent experience.
Incongruent information is modified to be congruent with the self
Incongruent information is flat out denied. The information flows over the self like water off a duck's back.
Describe three examples of the research supporting Rogers' ideas of self-consistency and -congruence (p. 157-158)
1: Various social roles -In a study, subjects were asked to rate themselves on various personality characteristics in various social roles. Measures of variability across the roles then were related to self-reports of psychological well-being. The results indicated that individuals with high variable role identities were more likely to be anxious, depressed, and low in self-esteem. High variability in the self-concept can be bad for mental health because it can be indicative of an unintegrated "core" self.
2: Individuals behave in ways that are consistent with their self-concepts -In a study of dishonest behavior, they reasoned that if people are tempted to cheat, they will be more likely to do so if their self-esteem is low than if it is high. The data gathered indeed suggested that whether or not an individual cheats is influenced by the nature of the self-concept. People who have a high opinion of themselves are likely to behave in ways they can respect, whereas people with a low opinion of themselves are likely to behave in ways that are consistent with that self-image.
3: People with low self-esteem are so prone to maintain a consistent self-concept - they sometimes fail to take even simple actions that might put them in a better mood. They seem resigned to maintaining a poor self-image and the experience of negative emotions. In one study, an experimental mood induction was used to put people into a sad mood. Participants then chose a video tape to watch. The choices included a video of a comedy routine. People with high self-esteem chose the comedy video, whereas, people with low self-esteem tended not to. Their choice produced a consistent negative mood even when they could have made themselves feel better.
Describe the important needs for child development including the need for positive regard vs. conditional worth.
It is important for the development of the child for the child to have warmth, empathy, genuineness, and unconditional positive regard. These act as building blocks for the self. Because the self develops through the reflected appraisals of others, it is important for the parents to provide this atmosphere of unconditional positive regard (UPR). Through this UPR, the child will self-actualize. However, if the child is show conditional worth during childhood, then incongruence develops because the child cannot live according to his/her deep organismic experience and must instead wear a mask.
Explain briefly the work of Coopersmith in his study of self-esteem (161-162)
Positive self-esteem was related to: acceptance by parents, clear rules, and freedom within the rules. Coopersmith defined self-esteem as the evaluation an individual typically makes with regard to the self. Self-esteem, then, is an enduring personal judgement. Children in the study completed a simple self-report measure of self-esteem, with most items coming from scales previously used by Rogers. Some findings involved the relation of self-esteem to other personality characteristics. Compared to children low in self-esteem, those high in self-esteem were found to be more assertive, independent, and creative in solving problems. The study provided evidence on the origins of self-esteem. Children's self-esteem was related more strongly to interpersonal conditions in the home and the immediate environment. Children appeared to develop self-views through a process of reflected appraisal in which they used opinions of themselves that were expressed by others as a basis for their own self-judgements.
What are the three key parental elements that lead to high self-esteem?
1. The degree of acceptance, interest, affection, and warmth expressed by parents toward the child. 2. Permissiveness and Punishment. 3. Whether parent-child relations were democratic or dictatorial.
Rogers' Self-experience Discrepancy *
be very clear
What does Rogers say is the responsibility of the therapist?
• Rogers believed that certain therapeutic conditions were necessary and sufficient for change. The conditions to be offered by the therapist are empathy, genuineness or congruence, and unconditional positive regard.
• The therapist's job is to provide the conditions that weren't offered to the client in childhood.
Why must the therapist take this approach?
The healthy therapeutic environment allows the client to feel accepted and thus emboldened to become aware of his or her inner "organismic experience," to accept it, and to learn to live in accordance with it. The client no longer has to distort or deny his experience to maintain the self-concept received from his parents who offered only conditional worth, and the self-concept can be transformed to be consistent with one's full experience.
What are the necessary therapeutic conditions for change?
The conditions to be offered by the therapist are empathy, genuineness or congruence, and unconditional positive regard.
Describe a balanced position (both appreciation and critique) of Rogers' therapeutic approach.
Appreciation: therapeutic conditions, the idea of unconditional positive regard, client-centered, importance of the client becoming aware of his/her experiences, and reflection of feelings
Critique: nondirective, trusting inner feelings above everything, and great for problem solving, but what about those with psychological disorders
Describe the updated research on the self, including multiple selves:
• Multiple Selves: our sense of self and our self-presentation change with different contexts
• Studies in Eastern cultures show that a familial self can be more important than the individualized self
• Change from the conception of self as inner character to self as public perception -you are what you are perceived to be. The self is manipulated by fostering external features such as looks and possessions.
• Terms such as possible and ought selves provide some variety in the self-concept
• Recent neurological research has begun to understand the functioning of the brain as it relates to the self. Subjects who saw words that intuitively fit their self-concepts showed brain activity in the emotional part of the brain.
Describe the updated research on cultural differences concerning the familial self (eastern v. western cultures -you could check out 190-193):
• Western and Eastern cultures have different ways of evaluating the self.
• Western view: views the self as unique and separate from others. This culture teaches people to have a need for unconditional positive regard. They also have self-esteem maintenance strategies, whereas, that is less known in Eastern cultures.
• Eastern view: views the self-concept as connections with others, and individual parts cannot be understood when separated from the whole. In other words, a familial self can be more important than the individualized self.
Describe the updated research on Cushman's ideas about how the concept of self has changed in America over the past century and the should/ought selves.
Describe the impact of social media on self-concept and self-esteem:
Describe the significance of the work of Maslow p. 177
• Maslow studied self-actualization, he included the need for self-transcendence; with his hierarchy of needs, he "bridges the gap" between Freud's biological needs theory and Rogers' need for self-actualization.
• Maslow's views have been important in two ways: 1. He suggested a view of human motivation that distinguishes between such biological needs as hunger, sleep, and thirst and such psychological needs as self-esteem, affection, and belonging. 2. His intensive study of healthy, self-fulfilling, self-actualizing individuals.
Describe what is meant by Existentialism?
This grapples with the following realities: we exist as free individuals, we are aware that we exist, we are aware that we will die, and we must authentically confront this inherent anxiety and create meaning in our lives.
Describe what is meant by Brahman, Atman, and the "self"
• Brahman: the one true god (the creator)
• Atman: the true self or essence of the human beyond the superficial identification with external appearances
• "Self": god within us, and ultimately our deepest nature is god.
Describe the four personality types (typology) or the four paths to God
• Jnana: seeks god through knowledge, intuitive discernment, and reflection
• Bhakti: focuses on the love of god, relationships, and feelings are more important than thoughts
• Karma: work or service is the means of transcendence; work should not be done for personal reward, but as an offering to god
• Raja: psychophysical exercise or meditation; mental exercises gives insight into one's self
Describe the basic layers/levels of personality from the Hindu perspective
• The physical body
• The personality: persona/mask or social roles
• Conscious layer of the mind
• Individual subconscious (personal history
• Being itself (Atman)
Describe the deepest level of personality according to Freud, Rogers, and Hinduism
• Freud: id
• Rogers: self-actualization
• Hinduism: god within you
Know the terms in the book...
...see Quizlet entitled Harding University Psy 380 Cameron Test #3 Vocab
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