40 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 10

tragedy of the commons
the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain
the unintended side effect of an action that affects something not involved in the action and is not included in the purchasing price etc.
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource
national park
a tract of land declared by the national government to be public property used for scientific, educational, and recreational use
managed resource protected areas
allows for the sustained use of biological, mineral, and recreational resources
habitat and species management areas
areas actively managed to maintain biological species and habitat
strict nature reserves and wilderness areas
areas established to protect species and ecosystems
protected landscapes and seascapes
areas combined with the nondestructive use of natural resources with oppurtunities for tourism and recreation (orchards, villages, beaches)
national monuments
areas set aside to protect unique sites of special natural or cultural interest
resource conservation ethic
states that people should maximize resource use based on the greatest good for everyone (economic, scientific,recreational, and aesthetic)
multiple use lands
public lands that can be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction, wildlife preserving, or scentific research
Bureau of Land Management
(BML) used for grazing, mining, timber harvesting, and recreation
US Forest Service
(USFS) used for timber harvesting, grazing, and recreation
National Park Service
(NPS) used for recreation and conservation
US Fish and Wildlife Service
(FWS) used for wildlife conservation, hunting, and recreation
dry, open grasslands used for cattle grazing (the most common use for land in the USA)
a timber harvesting technique that involves removing all or almost all the trees within an area. This has a big short term profit.
Quick growing trees will do well with a lot of sunlight. This technique increases wind and water erosion, sediments nearby streams, harms aquatic populatins, mudslides, heating of water
selective cutting
a timber harvesting technique that involves the removal of sins trees or relatively ssmal numbers of trees from among many in a forest. This produces optimum growth from shade tolerant trees. It is a less extensively damaging technique. Transporting logs can lead to road creation and soil impaction
ecologically sustainable forestry
an approach that has a goal of maintaining all species in as close a natural state as possible
tree plantations
large areas typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species
prescribed burn
a deliberate fire set to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass
National Environmental Policy Act
(NEPA) An act from 1969 that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits
Environmental Impact Statement
(EIS) A NEPA rule that require an outline of the scope and purpose of a federal project. It must describe the environmental context, suggest alternative aproaches to the project and analyzes the environmental impact of each alternative
Environmental mitigation plan
a plan that states how a developer will address the environmental impact of a project or building
Endangered Species Act of 1973
A 1973 law designed to protect species from extinction
National wildlife refuges
the only federal public lands managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife
National wilderness areas
areas set aside with the intent of preserving large tracts of intact ecosystems or landscapes
areas sourrounding metropolitan centers with low population densities
similar to suburban areas but not connected to any central city or densely populated area
urban sprawl
the creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas and remove clear boundaries between the two
urban blight
the degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways begun by the Highway Revenue Act of 1956
induced demand
when an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow
a planning tool developed in the 20s to seperate industry and business from residential neighborhoods
smart growth
stratagies that encourage the development of sustainable healthy communities. They include mixed land uses, creating choice in housing opportunities and walkable neighborhoods, compact building design, a sense of place, preserved spaces of beauty, vareity of transportation, etc.
poeple with an interest in a particular place or issue
transit oriented development
A mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership
the process of filling in empty or rundown parts of a city with new development
urban growth boundaries
A regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for higher density urban development and the area outside to be used for lower density development. Used by local governments as a guide to zoning and land use decisions
eminent domain
the right of the state to take private property for public use

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