T2 Unit 4 - 1920s and 1930s
Terms in this set (73)
Return to Normalcy
Campaign slogan of Warren Harding. Meant a return to normal life as it was before World War I which is what many Americans wanted.
Post War Economy
After the war there was inflation for consumer goods as demand increased,. With workers pay not buying as much many went on strike for higher wages and shorter workdays. There was also a decline in agricultural products with Europe's recovery. This hurt farmers and made it difficult for them to pay their mortgages.
Wartime Advances for Women and Minorities
After the war many gains were lost. Jobs open to women and minorities were not going to returning soldiers. This caused particular racial tension in urban industrial cities and race riots in Chicago, Tulsa and other cities.
After World War I the United States was owed more money than the United States owed to other countries. This made the U.S. a major economic player in the world.
Based on producing and selling consumer goods, or goods for people.
Founder of the Ford Motor Company and revolutionized the auto industry with the assembly line and the treatment of his workers with $5/ week, 8 hour days and 40 hour weeks, resulting in 5 day workweek and a 2 day weekend. By doing this his workers could afford to buy a car and have time to use it.
Introduced in 1908 by Ford. It was mass produced and then affordable for the average American.
In the 1920s a flood of new, affordable goods became available to the public. A major reason for this was he widespread availability of electric power. Advertisement also played a huge role as new products are marketed to people.
Method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down payment and then pays off the rest of the debt in regularly monthly payments. This allowed Americans to own products they might not have otherwise saved for. This helped the Consumer Revolution of the 1920s.
A period of rising stock prices. During the 1920s the stock market was experiencing it. Which resulted in more and more Americans putting their money in the market in an effort to get rich.
Buying on Margin
System of buying stocks on credit, in which a buyer pays a small percentage possibly as little as 10% of the purchase price while the broker advances the rest. The rest is paid over time and the stock is the collateral for the loan. Worked well as long as stock price when up, but if stocks lost money loan still had to be paid. This caused a lot of speculation in the market.
The prosperity of the 1920s benefited urban much more than rural where farmers had difficulties. This resulted in conflicting visions of the U.S. division over many issues.
Growing trend to emphasize science and secular (nonreligious) values over traditional religious beliefs.
Movement stressing strict and literal following of religious beliefs. The Bible is seen as literal truth. Movement grows significantly in the 1920s, partially as a reaction to modernism and was particularly strong in rural America.
Scopes Trial, 1925
Trial of a Tennessee school teacher for breaking a law that forbade teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. The trial became a example of fundamentalism vs modernism.
Red Scare of 1919
Fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life. After the Communist Revolution in Russia fear of world revolution. Bombs in the US helped spread the fear as did the rise in union activities for example strikes.
Series of raids on the early 1920s initiated by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer against suspected radicals and communists. Thousands were arrested some were radicals, but some simply immigrants from southern or eastern Europe. Most not charged or tried for a crime and hundreds deported.
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
Italian immigrants and anarchists were charged with shooting and killing tow men during a robbery at a shoe factory. Convicted on little evidence and conviction based mostly on the twos ethnicity and political ideas and not evidence. Both executed in 1927.
A now discredited idea that the human race can be improved by controlling which people have children. This also was tied to race and Social Darwinism. Was also used by Nativists to push for immigration restrictions.
National Origins Act of 1924
Established a quota system for immigration tat limited the number of immigrants who could enter the U.S. from specific countries. Number of immigrants from a nationality could not exceed 2 percent of the number of people of that nationality living in the U.S. in 1890. 1890 was choose because it was before the great wave of southern and eastern European immigrants to the U.S. Did not apply to Mexico.
Ku Klux Klan
Organization that promotes hatred and discrimination against specific ethnic and religious groups. Reformed in 1915, the new Klan continued to promote hatred of African Americans, but also rose up in cities targeting Jews, Catholics and immigrants.
Forbidding by law the manufacture, transport, and sale of alcohol. Movement began back in 1830s with Temperance and becomes part of Progressivism. Become law for the whole country with the 18th Amendment.
Law enacted by Congress to enforce the 18th Amendment.
Sold illegal alcohol to consumers. This becomes part of the unintended consequences of Prohibition. Also the rise of organized crime.
Leader who organized a black nationalist movement in Harlem during the 1920s. Promoted economic and cultural independence for African Americans. He also organized a "Back to Africa" movement. He also advocated racial separation. His movement fell apart when he was sent to prison for mail fraud and deported.
American music form developed by African Americans, based on improvisation and blending blues, ragtime and European-based popular music. A demonstration of the depth and richness of African-American culture. Becomes the symbol of the Roaring Twenties also known as the Jazz Age.
Jazz trumpeter and one of the most influential artists in jazz history. He was also a bandleader, singer and comedian during his career.
Blues vocalist widely know as the "Empress of the Blues" Smith sang with some of the great musicians of the time.
Period during the 1920s in which African Americans novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture.
A break from the past. No longer would African Americans endure old ways of exploitation and discrimination. This is incorporated into the Harlem Renaissance.
Influential poet and writer who thought of his work as a means to communicate the black experience in the United States.
Zora Neale Hurston
A writer associated with the Harlem Renaissance who was trained as an anthropologist and went on to teach for a number of years. One of her most influential works was Their Eyes Were Watching God.
Elected President in 1928. About six months into his presidency the Great Depression started. Hoover became the scapegoat for the depression and was defeated in the 1932 election.
Wealth Distribution in the 1920s
Farmers did not benefit due to Europe recovery and global competition. Urban workers became less poor, but since productivity increased significantly business owners wealth increased dramatically. All of this results in significant wealth inequality and would lead to economic instability.
Practice of making high-risk investment in hopes of obtaining large profits. This was made worse with buying stocks on margin.
Oct. 29, 1929. More than 16 million shares of stock were sold leading to the Great Crash. Causing billions of dollars of value lost and helping to trigger the Great Depression.
1929 to 1941 when the U.S. economy faltered and unemployment soared reaching about 25% by 1933.
Protective tax on imports enacted by Congress in 1930 in an effort to counter the nation's slide into the Great Depression. It had the opposite effect, because European countries retaliated and this helped create a global depression.
John Maynard Keynes
Economists who argued that the lack of government interference in the economy led to the Great Depression. Recommended the government spend more money to keep people employed when the economy slows.
Term used to describe makeshift shantytowns set up by homeless people during the Great Depression. Came to symbolize people blaming President Hoover.
With the stock market crash some banks invested in the market failed. This lead to a rush for people to take their money out of banks before they failed. This caused more bank failures.
The Dust Bowl
Mid-1930s a drought in the Great Plains added to the problems of farmers. Expanded farming made the drought conditions worse with the removal of natural grasses and overgrazing of livestock. The loose topsoil and drought created huge dust storms, some as high as 8,000 feet and 100 mph. Focused on the regions of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, New Mexico and Colorado. Many farm families were forced to leave.
Term used to describe Dust Bowl refugees. Though only some came from Oklahoma.
Hoover's Response to the Depression
At first took a hands-off policy because believed downswings in economy natural and government should not interfere. He also encouraged business and labor to voluntarily work to common goals and requested wealthier individuals to give more money to charity. Problem was it relied too much on voluntary cooperation and it did not work. He resisted direct relief because he thought it was unconstitutional.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Federal agency set up by Congress in 1932 to provide emergency government credit to banks, railroads, and other large businesses. Hoover created as the Depression continued on. Thought it would lead to trickle-down economics. Does not work.
Economic theory that holds that financial benefits given to banks and large businesses will trickle down to smaller businesses and consumers.
Group of World War I veterans who marched on Washington, D.C. in 1932 to demand early payments of a bonus promised them by Congress in 1924 to be paid in 1945. About 20,000 veterans arrived in the capital and set up camps and occupied empty government buildings. Riot broke out when police tried to evict the marchers. The U.S. army then used force to remove the veterans.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Ran and elected President in 1932. Lead the U.S. through the Great Depression and World War II before dying in office in 1945.
Program and legislation pushed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression to promote economic recovery and social reform. Promoted a federal government need to play a active role in promoting recovery and providing relief to Americans.
First 100 Days
During Roosevelt's first 100 days in office he proposed and Congress passed 15 major bills that address three goals: relief, recovery and reform.
Emergency Banking Bill
Designed to stabilize banks, declared a 4 day bank holiday where banks closed and got accounts in order before reopening.
Informal radio broadcasts in which President Roosevelt explained his views of issues at hand directly to the American people. They helped people understand what the government was doing and calm fears.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Government agency created during the New Deal that insures bank deposits, guaranteeing that depositors money will be safe.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Regulates the stock market and make it safer place for investments.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Government agency which sought to end overproduction and raise crop prices. It paid farmers subsidies to cut production and by 1934 farm prices began to rise. Some farmers did not qualify and it raised the price of food hurting consumers. Also many tenant farmers became unemployed.
Tennessee Valley Authority
Government agency created during the New Deal to build dams in the Tennessee River valley to control flooding ad generate electric power. This created jobs and attracted industry to the area.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal program that provided young men with relief jobs on environmental conservation projects, including reforestation and flood control. Provided jobs to more that 2 million men.
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
New Deal agency that promoted economic recovery by regulating production, prices, and wages. Worked with business and labor leaders to develop codes of fair competition to govern whole industries. By establishing minimum wages and minimum prices people would make money, buy products and businesses would make a profit.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
New Deal Agency that provided millions of jobs constructing public buildings as well ans airports, dams and bridges. Program provided important infrastructure and jobs.
American Liberty League
Created in 1934. Critics of the New Deal that thought it went too far and gave the government too much power.
Critic of the New Deal and thought it did not go far enough. A doctor from California who called for the federal government to provide $200 a month to all citizens over 60.
Father Charles Coughlin
Critic of the New Deal for not going far enough. Had radio program with an audience of millions to promote his ideas. First supported the New Deal, but then becomes a critic. As his views became more radical and antisemitic the Church forced him to end the broadcasts.
Elected Governor of Louisiana in 1928 and won wide following by providing reforms to help poor during the depression. Senator from 1932-1935 became a vocal critic of Roosevelt and the New Deal and called for redistribution of wealth, "Share Our Wealth" program. In 1935 announced plan to run for president and was assassinated in same year, by a political enemy.
Second New Deal
Campaign by Roosevelt begun in early 1935 to find solutions to ongoing problems of the Great Depression. Created social security and unemployment along with other works programs.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
2nd New Deal program that provided work relief though various public works projects. Also included programs for artists, writers and actors along with infrastructure projects.
Priming the Pump
Economic theory that favored public works project because they put money into the hands of consumers who would buy more goods stimulating the economy.
Social Security Act
1935 law that set up a pension system for retirees, established unemployment insurance for victims of work-related accidents and providing aid for poverty-stricken mothers and children, the blind and the disabled. At first, it did not apply to farmerworkers or domestic workers.
New Deal law that abolished unfair labor practices, recognized the right of employees to organize labor unions, and gave workers the right to collective bargaining.
Process in which employers negotiate with labor unions about wages, hours, and other working conditions.
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 law that set a minimum wage and maximum work week of 44 hours, and outlawed child labor.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
Labor organization founded in the 1930s that was composed of industrial unions which represented all workers in an industry regardless of their job or skill.
Organized labor action in which workers stop working and occupy the workplace until their demands are met. In 1936 auto workers in Flint, Michigan had a sit-down strike lasting 44 days and the union won.
The Supreme Court declared the NRA and the AAA unconstitutional. In 1937 Roosevelt came up with a plan to add 6 new justices to the 9 member Supreme Court. Critics who thought added justices would support the New Deal called it court packing and accused him of trying to increase presidential power and hurting the balance of power. Plan never enacted and the Supreme Court started to support the New Deal. The plan did hurt Roosevelt politically.