APUSH Chapter 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (12)
Legacy of French and Indian War
By driving the French out of Canada, Britain had achieved dominance over eastern North America. But the cost of the triumph was high: a mountain of debt that prompted the British ministry to impose new taxes on its American possessions. The war spurred Parliament to redefine the character of the empire, moving from an administrative system based on self-government and trade to one centered on rule by imperial officials. It changed the relationship between Britain and its American colonies--revealed sharp cultural differences between colonies and the home country. Exposed the weak political position of the British royal governors and other officials. To enhance the power of the crown in American, British officials began a strict enforcement of the Navigation Acts. Deployment of peactime army in North America--prevent French rebellion and Spanish invasion. Indicated a willingness to use force to preserve its authority. Britain's national debt also increased quickly. The war had transformed British political life, creating a more active and intrusive government.
Replaced the Molasses Act of 1733--introduced by Grenville in 1764. A small duty of 3 pence per gallon, argued that it would allow molasses from the British islands to compete with the cheaper French product without destroying the trade of the N.A. mainland colonies or their distilling industry. Many people smuggled molasses and didn't pay the duty. Campaigned against publicly, claimed that the new tax would wipe out trade with the French islands. Raised the cost of molasses to distillers.
Maritime tribunals composed only of a judge. Merchants accused of violating the acts would be tried by these, not my common-law jury. For half a century American legislatures had vigorously opposed vice-admiralty courts, expanding the jurisdiction of colonial courts to cover customs offenses occurring in the seaports. New power revived old American fears and complaints--"they degrade every American...below the rank of an Englishman."
(1765) Part of Grenville's plan to defray the cost of maintaining the British army along the American frontier. Revenue stamps were required on all printed matter and legal documents, newspapers, and insurance papers etc. For the colonists the main issue was taxation without representation. Taxed the newspapers sold by printers and the contracts and court documents used by merchants and lawyers.
Claim made by British politicians in 1754 that merchants and others in Parliament with interest in the colonies could provide adequate support for colonial concerns, rather than having Americans serve in Parliament.
Sons of Liberty
Carefully and well-disciplined mobs that sought to channel popular discontent against British rule toward terrorizing local British officials and other symbols of colonial authority in the decade of hostilities leading up to the American Revolution. Made an effigy of the collector Andrew Oliver, which they beheaded and burned, and then they destroyed a new brick building he owned. Leaders were usually middling artisans.
Ideology of Revolution
Originally had no acknowledged leaders and no central organization. Had arisen spontaneously in the seaport cities because urban residents were directly affected by British policies. As urban merchants and crowds protested against the new measures, they found some allies in the colonial assemblies--the traditional defenders of local interests against royal governors--but the movement was slow to develop a coherent outlook and organization. First protests focused on particular economic and political matters. Men trained as lawyers took the lead, in part because merchants hired them to contest the seizure of their goods by customs officials. Their own professional values and training provided another motive; as practitioners of the common law they opposed extension of vice-admiralty courts and favored trial by juries. Three intellectual traditions: 1) English common law--the centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the king's subjects against arbitrary acts by the government, 2) the rationalist thought of the Enlightenment, 3) the republican and Whig strands of the English political tradition.
Rockingham's Old Whig ministry collapsed and George III named William Pitt to head the new ministry. He was chronically ill and missed Parliamentary debates, leaving Charles Townshend in command. Pitt sympathetic to America; Townshend not. He backed measures restricting the power of the colonial assemblies. Grenville attacked his military budget in 1767, demanding that the colonists pay for the British troops in America, Townshend made an unplanned, fateful policy decision. He promised that he would find a new source of revenue in America. Political and financial goals. Imposed taxes on paper, paint, glass, and tea imported into the colonies and was expected to raise about forty-thousand pounds per year. The act reserved the major part of the new tax revenue to create a colonial civil list--a fund to pay for the salaries of royal governors, judges, and other imperial officials. Townshend also devised the Revenue Act of 1767 that created a Board of American Customs Commissioners in Boston and vice-admiralty courts in Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston.
1778, put a high tax on tea and stated that the colonist could only buy tea from the British. A group of indignant colonists, led by Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, and others, disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded the ships on the night of Dec. 16, 1773, and threw the tea into the harbor.
Early in 1774 Parliament decisively rejected a proposal to repeal the duty on American tea; instead, it enacted four Coercive Acts to force MA into submission. A Port Bill closed Boston Harbor until the East India Company received payment for the destroyed tea. A Government Act annulled the MA charter and prohibited most local town meetings. A new Quartering Act required the colony to build barracks or accommodate soldiers in private houses. Finally, to protect royal officials from Patriot-dominated juries in MA, a Justice Act allowed the transfer of trials for capital crimes to other colonies or to Britain.
First Continental Congress
American leaders called for a new all-colony assembly, the Continental Congress. The newer colonies--Florida, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland--did not attend, not did Georgia, whose legislature was effectively controlled by a royal governor. Delegates chosen by the other twelve mainland assemblies met in Philadelphia in September 1774. Southern leaders favored a new economic boycott. New England representatives wanted to go further, advocating political union and defensive military preparations. Many delegates from the middle colonies wanted to seek a political compromise with the British ministry. Led by Joseph Galloway of PA, they outlined a scheme for a new imperial system that resembled the Albany Plan of Union of 1754. America would have a legislative council selected by the colonial assemblies and a president-general approved by the king. The new council would have veto power over Parliamentary legislation that affected America. However, the delegates refused to endorse Galloway's plan. They thought it was too conciliatory because there were British troops occupying Boston. Instead, they passed a Declaration of Rights and Grievances that condemned the Coercive Acts and demanded their repeal. It also repudiated the Declaratory Act of 1766, which had proclaimed Parliament's supremacy over the colonies, and demanded that Britain restrict its supervision of American affairs to matters of external trade. In January 1775 William Pitt, now sitting in the House of Lords as the earl of Chatham, asked Parliament to give up its claim to tax the colonies and recognize the Continental Congress as a lawful body. It was branded as an illegal assembly.
Friction between the residents and British soldiers over constitutional principles and everyday issues, such as competition for part-time jobs, sparked this. In March 1770, a group of soldiers fired into a rowdy crowd, killing five-men, including one of the leaders, Crispus Attucks, an escaped slaves who was working as a seaman. Reviving fears of a ministerial conspiracy against liberty, a Radical Whig pamphlet accused the British of deliberately planning the massacre.
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