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If an atom= 1 km the nucleus=?
Mass of one proton or neutron is almost _______ times greater than an electron
________ repel each other
Causes neutrons and protons to be attracted to each other
What holds the nucleus together
Neutrons and protons need to be ____________ for a strong force to work
Electromagnetic force, gravity, strong force, weak force
4 forces of nature
In a _________ __________ strong force can attract all protons in a nucleus
In a _________ ___________ the protons are attracted to each other by the strong force
What is pushing the protons and the neutrons apart?
What force increases?
What for stays the same?
Nuclei that decay
Nucleus with Large number of protons and neutrons
What kind of nuclei tend to be unstable?
More than 83
All elements with _____________ protons are radioactive
More than 92
Elements with _____________ protons do not exist in nature only in labs, and they are very unstable
Elements with more than 92 protons that do not exist in nature only in labs, they are very unstable and decay easily
Energy is emitted
When unstable nucleus decays what happens?
___________ amounts of mass converting to ___________ amounts of energy
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Mass, atomic number
_______ is different, ___________ stays the same
Number of neutrons
Mass number - atomic number =
alpha, beta, gamma
3 types of radiation
Alpha and beta are _________
Gamma is an ____________________
2 protons, 2 neutrons, emitted from a decaying nucleus, resembles a helium nucleus, +2 charge, can be stopped by a thin sheet of paper
From an unstable nucleus, the electron is emitted, a neutron decays into a protons and electron, -1 charge, can be stopped by a thin piece of aluminum foil
Mass is same as original atom because # of protons and neutrons doesn't change, just electrons
Most penetrating, electromagnetic waves, highest wave length, shortest frequencies, no mass, no charge, travel speed of light, mass=0 charge=0, stopped by a thick block of lead, usually emitted from nucleus when you have alpha or beta decay
half-life of a radioactive isotope
How can you tell when atoms will decay?
Half-life of a radioactive isotope
Time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample of isotopes to decay
Measure of radioactive isotopes in a sample to date something
Estimate the age of a plant or animal, can only measure for things living in the past 50,000 years
Age of rocks, has 2 radioactive isotopes with long half-lives, each decays into a different isotope of lead
Tools that can detect radiation ions formed in matter
High speed nuclei, showers of alpha that can strike the beta and gamma in earths atmosphere
Splitting a nucleus into several smaller nuclei
Only ___________ nuclei will undergo fission
In nuclear fission, small amount of _________ is converted to huge amounts of _____________
Energy, mass, speed of light
E=mc2 e=? m=? c= ?
Series of repeated fission reactions caused by release of neutrons in each reaction
Amount of material that is required so that each fission reaction produces approximately on more fission reaction
Involved in the neutron decay process
2 nuclei with small masses combine to form nucleus of larger mass
Nuclear fusion releases _________________ times more energy than by chemical reactions
Temperature and fusion
Kinetic energy is needed for more molecules to move fast
Centers of stars
Where is temperature in fusion found?
a million degrees
For fusion to occur you need a present temperature of __________________
The sun is manly composed of what element?
Energy from our sun is created by ___________
____________ Hydrogen fuse to become _____________ helium
As the sun ages, _____________ will be used up
We have already used _________ of the suns hydrogen
5 billion years
The hydrogen in the sun will last up to ____________ more
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