88 terms

Marketing Research Exam #1


Terms in this set (...)

#1 Crisis in all of marketing research?
Lack of actionability of research results, caused by lack of collaboration between client and researcher
#2 Crisis in all of marketing research?
Non-Response Error
Why did Andreasen write Backward Market Research? Why is it called backward marketing research?
To get usable results, start where process normally ends and work backwards

Start with problem/opportunity definition and how it will be implemented
2 leading strategies for conducting successful backward market research?
1: Client involvement at every step (Collaboration)
2: Create mock tables and graphs to ensure decision maker and reduce risks/uncertainties (Iteration)
4 basic steps that make up flow of an interview?
1: Intro
2: Warm up
3: In depth investigation
4: Closure
2 key criteria for productive interviews?
1: Be non directive
Let interviewee explain how they feel, not interviewer
2: Achieving clarity, specificity, and depth
Get interviewee to elaborate beyond simple responses
5 key strategies for productive interviews?
1: Listen carefully
2: Be non judgemental
3: Let people talk
4: Be sensitive
5: Provide feedback and encouragement
Most important responsibility of interviewer?

Objectives include to evoke adequate and complete responses and to focus the interview on its main objective

When to use probing revolves around when interviewer does not understand a term used, wants more detailed information, trying to uncover hidden motivations
Why taking notes is not advised?
Disrupts flow
Would have to explain to interviewee why they're taking notes
Whats wrong with iPhone focus group?
-No discussion
-Not a homogenous group
-Moderator peppered them with questions
-No cross-pollination of ideas
Macanudo focus group
-Go from specific to general comments about men smoking cigars
-Pull out recurring themes from quotes in focus group
-Themes -> insights -> conclusions
-Identified needs: Personal Reward (without guilt)
-Identified Benefits Sought After: Pleasure, Relaxation, Escape
-Ultimately helps to understand motivation of consumers to establish brand as the solution to the needs of their customers
3 Themes from diapers and condoms focus groups
1: Social media is opening people up and making them more comfortable discussing taboo subjects

2: Friendship circles used to run focus groups, can lead to more honest feedback as friends keep each other honest

3: Moderators see impactful nature of their work and feel as though they are doing good. More likely to get valuable information from respondents. Longer tenure of marketers in this type of business because they need more experience to understand the real truth from consumers. Also relying more heavily on clinical psychologists and others that are good at understand the real truth.
Problem with internet focus groups?
Qualitative research on the internet can't replace the real thing

-Lose group dynamic/interaction between participants

-Can't see non verbal inputs

-Lose client involvement - client can't have direct interaction with consumers, only can monitor written responses on the screen

-Can't perform exposure to external stimuli and see reaction (prototype or other interactive material)

-Can't confirm identity of respondent/lose security

-Participants may not be completely attentive to topic and instead doing something else during the session

-Moderator may not be ask skilled (can't employ key moderator skills like energizing slow crowd, drawing out quiet participants, delving deeper into certain points)
Advantages of internet focus groups?
1. Cost Efficient
2. Geographic constraints are removed
3. Time constraints are lessened
4. Can reach hard to interview groups (doctors, lawyers, working mothers)
Importance of pretesting?
Helps identify and eliminate potential problems by giving questionnaire to a small group of people
3 steps of pretesting
1: After draft is developed, have it critiqued by an expert then REVISE

2: Recruit small sample of people (5-10) who are more or less homogenous in terms of demographics AND REPRESENTATIVE OF SURVEY STUDY. Have them take questionnaire (without interaction) and then interview them for their thoughts and feelings on the experience. REVISE

3: Conduct full field test with small sample (50) with all procedures and conditions as planned for the final survey study (incentives, emails, specific sampling approach) After seeing returned questionnaires, get insights on RESPONSE rate, REVISE, then IMPLEMENT
Problems with filming consumer shopping and then interviewing him? (Youtube/Bargains with reality)
-Might have been behaving a certain way for the camera. Need longer immersion so he goes back to normal

-May not trust the observer

-May have provided false justifications/explanations for his behavior

-May have forgot why he did certain things
Pyschological bases for Zaltman Metaphoric Elicitation Technique
-Memory is story based

-Thinking and occurs in images, not words, and images reveal intentions and images convey deep metaphors

-We are emotionally driven

-Cognition is embodied

-Most of human psyche is below the conscious level

-Emotion and reason equally important
How ZMET is implemented?
1: Ask subject to collect images representing their thoughts and feelings on a specific topic

2: Interview subject about the topic using their pictures as a jumping off point for dicussion

3: Analyze the interviews for surface level and deeper meanings to reveal key insights
ZMET Advantages
Gives invaluable insights into the consumers' deep subconcious and true behaviors.

Gives clients actionable insights by bridging the gap between what consumers' say and what they actually mean.

Drives true consumer understanding that can inform better strategic thinking for branding and positioning of products.
How did Wet SEal use social media as a research tool for specific managerial-marketing purposes?
-Online website, Outfitter, that lets individuals put together outfits online. Outfits are posted and users can search through them and exchange ideas and recommendations. Uses this feature to rapidly update mannequins and in store merchandise to meet changing trends

-i-Runway app lets customer (in-store) see how an item has been used in outfits created by other customers online. Creates a community of customers and thus increase customer sales
Research uses and insights from online communities?
1. Reach - Ability to contact many people in more places
2. Depth - Ability to understand more realistically what consumers are doing, thinking, feeling
3. Dynamic Feedback - Ability to capture ongoing feedback (longitudinal data)
4. Fast Results - Ability for quick cycle of listen/observe/understand, generate ideas, test, validate
5. Cost-Benifit Value - Ability to obtain more useful insights with less financial investment

-Harley Davidson created a community that relayed certain products and contact between different genders and races

-Adobe created a forum that allowed individuals with less experience to learn from more experienced users

-Procter and Gamble used their community to adapt and see how products/consumer tastes were changing
Problems with Big Data?
1. Correlation, Not Causation - may show correlation between two events/trends, does not show if one caused another

2. Not a Replacement - can work well as adjunct to scientific inquirery but can't solve problems without understanding/analysis

3. Manipulatable - Many tools are based on big data can be easily gamed (manipulate system to receive results they want)

4. Less Impactful - Results of big data analysis often turn out to be less robust than they initially seem

5. Echo-Chamber Effect - Much of the data comes from the web, which could in it of itself be produced from big data (compounding errors)

6. Too many Correlations - no meaningful connection between two variables

7. Too Advanced - Prone to giving scientific-sounding solutions to hopelessly imprecise questions

8. Best Practice - big data is at its best when analyzing things that are extremely common, falls short at analyzing things that are less common

9. Hype - Too much hype over how important it is in the grand scheme of technological advancement
Most basic purpose of marketing research?
Reduce the risk and uncertainty in marketing strategy development and decision making
6 steps in Marketing Research process?
1: Define problem/opportunity
2: Develop approach (research questions, hypothesis, info needed)
3: Research design formulation
4: Fieldwork/data collection
5: Data prep and analysis
6: Report preparation and presentation
Which step is most important?
All equally important, can argue any, first is critical
Domino effect?
Early decisions have impacts on later stage things for better or worse
Bandwagon effect
Once things get going and you're far into the process, sunk costs and hard to stop
Sunk costs
We've already come this far, theres no time/it wouldn't be worth it to go back to an earlier step at this point
Four main tasks involved before fully identifying the managerial problem/opportunity and the related marketing research challenge?
1: Discussion with decision-makers
2: Interviews with experts
3: Secondary data analysis
4: Other qualitative research
The Problem/Opportunity Definition Framework
Beginning Tasks Involved
Environmental Context Considerations

Step 1. Problem/Opportunity Definition
Management Decision Opportunity/Problem
Marketing Research Problem

Step 2. Approach to the Opportunity/Problem

Step 3. Research Design
Three basic types of research design?
1: Exploratory

Conclusive Research Designs
2: Descriptive
3: Causal
Exploratory research
Objectives: Discovery of ideas and insights; formulate problem or opportunity; identify new courses of action; develop hypotheses; identify key factors and relationships; gain insights for developing other approaches to the problem

Characteristics: flexible; versatile; open ended; high uncertainty; case specific; correlational insights

Main methods: mining secondary sources; interviews; projective techniques; observation; huge trend - social media and related online communities
Descriptive reserach
Objectives: specify market characteristics; estimate % population exhibiting certain behavior; examine associations among variables and test specific hypotheses

Characteristics: Usually structured; moderate uncertainty; univariate and correlational insights

Main methods: Mining secondary sources; surveys; observations
Causal reserach
Objectives: determine cause-effect relationships; low to moderate uncertainty

Charactersitics: usually structured; manipulation of 1 or more variables; random assignment

Main methods: experiments
Major advantage of longitudinal research
Helps you measure change and trends over time
Two broad categories of errors in Total Error
-Random sampling error (+/- 3% for (5% CI)
-non sampling error
Characteristics of focus groups
Size: 8-12 or fewer
Composition: Usually homogenous respondents who are prescreened (purposive)
Setting: relaxed, informal atmosphere
Time duration: 1-3 hours, usually 90 minutes
Recording: use of audiocassetes or tapes
Moderator: Strong observational, interpersonal, and communication skills needed
Common sampling approach to recruiting people for focus groups
Objectives of focus groups
-Get acquainted with a new market segment
-get early reactions to a new idea
-look for possible explanations to emerging problems (Reduce risk)
Biggest determinant of success of focus groups?
How many focus groups should be conducted?
-until saturation, meaning few or no more new ideas emerging
-usually occurs after 5-7 focus groups
Key qualities of outstanding focus group moderator
-great memory
-excellent listener
-knowledgeable but not all knowing about the discussion topics
Listening for listening sake?
Don't. Instead, use social media data to identify customers, identify trends, opportunities for outreach, and build these relationships into new channels.

Top down and pragamatic in collection and analysis of social media data.
Who owns the brand?
Customers, branding depends on what customers think and how they perceive your company's product or service. Easy to share thoughts on brand/products and viral effects will take over from there.
Social media metrics
Sentiment analysis
Conversion volume
Share of voice
Cost deflections
Cost per conversion
Sentiment analysis
Coding the valence of specific content information (e.g. about the brand) to determine attitudes and predict near-term behavior

1. Positive, Negative, Neutral
2. Text Analytics
Act or process of supporting a cause or proposal
-net promoter score
Conversion volume
Total number of posts on given brand or topic tracked over set period of time
Share of voice
Total number of posts related to a specific brand or topic divided by all posts across the market of all people talking about brand or topic
Cost deflections
Removal of costs from methods a business uses to support customers. Occurs when social media forum removes expenses from various processes that the business would otherwise incur
Cost per conversion
Varies by business and situation, commonly refers to a purchase or lead but can also refer to other types of actions such as visiting a page on a website, or downloading a document

CpC = (Ad Campaign Cost)/(# of Conversions)
Noncomparative Scaling Techniques
Respondents evaluate only one object at a time (not comparing brands)

Consist of continuous and itemized rating scales
Likert scale
Itemized rating scale, requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each series of statements
Semantic differential
continuous rating scale. Can be itemized or continuous depending on whether or not you have words associated with each point on the scale -endpoints associated with bipolar labels - -3 to +3 basis or 1-7 basis
Net promoter score
Specific 11 point measure that is among the most popular of continuous rating scales in recent years and it has shown high correlations with brand performance over time
Measures how likely you are to do x
Continuous rating scale
Net promoter score classifications
-promoters (9-10)
-passives (satisfied but not enthusiastic) (7-8)
-Detractors (much less or not at all happy and more likely to spread negative WOM) (0-6)
Five important decisions in constructing continuous itemized scales
-Number of categories: between 5-9; professor 5 and 11 (more rarely)

-balanced vs unbalances: balanced to obtain objective data (same amount of positive and negative scores)

-odd/even number of categories: If neutral response is possible for some respondents, Try to use odd for a neutral scale. Don't use No opinion as middle point

-Forced vs nonforced: In situation where not all respondents will have an knowledge/opinion, Non-forced scale improves accuracy of data. Includes neutral option

-Verbal description: labeling all or many scale categories
Unbalanced scale
Has one negative category and 3 positive categories
Forced scale:
Must have an opinion; no "I Don't Know" or "No opinion option"
Three criteria to get most accurate answer on survey
- readily understand questions
- able to answer them accurately
- willing to answer them accurately
Using adjectives/words that are vague and can be interpreted subjectively
Double barreled
Two or more questions are combined into one to obtain info required, two distinct questions should be asked
Clues respondent to what the answer should be
Mutually exclusive
No overlap between categories
Collectively exhausted
In almost all cases, no missing categories that respondents would expect, want, or need to have available
Dichotomous question
only 2 response categories.
Check all is dichotomous as a check is yes and blank is no
Difficult and sensitive questions placed where?
Middle or late in sequence
Classification questions placed where?
demographic questions appear last.
Observational Methods
1. Personal Observation
2. Mechanical Observation
3. Audit
4. Content Analysis
5. Trace Analysis
Three dimensions for categorizing observational methods
1. Structured vs unstructured observations: Degree of pre-specified data to be recorded

2. Disguised vs Undisguised:
Degree to which participants know they are being observed and the intent of that observation

3. Natural vs Contrived observation:
Whether data are collected in a natural or artificial environment
Trace analysis
Data collection directly by researcher or machine, based on physical traces as evidence of past behavior
Examples of trace analysis
-searching through trash
-erosion of tiles in museum
-cookies on internet
three mechanical observation methods
Mechanical observation: machine based, may or may not require respondent's consented participation

-optical scanners in supermarkets
-nudists shower cameras
-eye tracking monitors
Personal observation methodology is known as
Two criteria most crucial in personal observation
1. Length of immersion: Go to acting normal as time passes
2. Trust: of those being observed are often crucial to reliability and validity of resulting insights
Projective Techniques
Unstructured, indirect form of questioning (or task), usually in a disguised manner
Projective techniques intend to gather what?
1. Reveal their motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings about the topic of concern.

2. Intended to solicit insights on topics that are non-conscious and or sensitive.

3.Used for exploratory research
Freudian-like foundations
Assuming much of human behavior is driven by sublimated psychological issues, often related to issues like fear, fantasy, shame, desire, anger/revenge, envy/status, self-esteem. Not always comfortable sharing our true sentiment toward.
Word association
List of words, ask to respond to each word with first idea that comes to mind. Test words (word of actual interest) are interspersed.

Analyze frequency by which any response is given across a sample of individuals and the amount of time that elapses before a response is given.
Sentence completion
Respondents are asked to complete incomplete sentences, generally with the first word or phrase that comes to mind
Thematic Apperception Test
Picture response technique:

Describe what they see or tell a story surrounding a picture or series of pictures.

Interpretation gives indications of personality and motivational issues
Advantages of projective techniques
Elicit responses people would otherwise be:

1. Unwilling to Give - issue addressed is highly personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms

2. Unable to Give - when motivations, beliefs, and attitudes lie at the subconcious level
Disadvantages of projective techniques
1. Skilled researchers required to collect and analyze responses

2. Need to use more than one interpreter (sometimes consumers themselves)

3. Ethical issues loom large (confidentiality, pyschological stress)
Deontological Model (Rights Model)
Rights of individual have priority over any good that might be obtained through Market Research.

Choice to lie/deceive in a research opportunity cannot be justified by the effect no matter how morally good the consequences

Research should not harm anyone/cause stress no matter how important the findings may be

Unit of Analyses: Individual

Emphasis: means and intentions of the contemplated acts

Fundamental Principles: Rights and Justice
Utilitarian Model (Consequences Model)
People can live morally apart from the bible. Focus is on results rather than rules.

Gain the greatest good for the greatest number of people Can connect answer to demographic info.

Unit of Analysis: Society

Emphasis: outcomes of the contemplated acts

Fundamental Principles: social cost benefit analysis
Selling Under the Guise of Research

Against AMA code of ethics, may further erode public confidence in marketing and market reserach
Fundraising Under the Guise of Research