BJU, World Studies, Chapter 7
Terms in this set (56)
Many Indians lived in the SW region or North America were known as
Indians who built mounds throughout the eastern half of North America where known as
a mound in the shape of an animal or object that Indians also built such as the Serpent Mound located in southern Ohio
Six tribes who spoke the common language of Iroquois formed this league in the early 15th Century
Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles
Who lived in what is today a portion of Central America that includes Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula?
The Atecs capital built in 1345 on an island in the middle of a lake in central Mexico
War and Warriors
What was the Aztec society characterized by?
Ferocity and Military Skill
What did the Aztecs use to conquer many tribes around them?
To pay them tribute (taxes)
What did the Aztecs require of the 5 million people they conquered?
Who did the Aztecs worship?
Human sacrifice, during which they cut out human hearts from living people and offered them to the gods
How did the Aztecs worship their gods?
Many who were captured at war
Who did the Aztecs often use as their sacrifice?
The Aztecs believed this god, once lived on the earth and brought them prosperity was forced to leave but promised to return in the future. The Aztecs anticipated his return and this belief made them open to deception by the Spanish conquerors. Who was this god?
The Aztecs people were governed by type of rule
The capital of the Incan empire
Which Indian civilization punished adultery by stoning?
The ruler of the Incas whose title was "Inca" served as the empire's living god and owned the land.
Who owned the land in the Incan Empire?
The Plains Indians
Which group of North American Indians migrated?
They were one of the most powerful groups in eastern North America and they needed their cooperation to accomplish anything.
How did the Iroquois Confederacy impact other Indian tribes and European explorers?
Great Law of Peace
What was the name of the peace treaty than an Indian leader established among several Iroquois tribes?
What made exploration possible?
Belts of consistent winds that blow from east to west and were especially important to the early explorers
The sailor's most useful instrument
Sailors used this to measure the angle between the sun or a star and the horizon at a specific time of day or night. From this measurement a sailor could determine his latitude.
When a sailor decided what they thought their location was, estimated their speed, looked at the map & aimed for a compass heading that they believed would get them to their goal
Economic, Social, Political or Religious
Name three motives for European exploration. Describe them.
1. Advances in shipbuilding which resulted in the caravel to make long journeys on the open sea.
2. Navigation Maps which included information about wind patterns (trade winds) and Instruments like the compass and astrolabe
Name two navigational improvements that made exploration possible. Describe them.
Spain & Portugal bordered the Atlantic Ocean & Mediterranean Sea and had long history of shipbuilding and navigating bodies of water.
-traveled south to find new bodies of water.
-access to navigational and mapmaking skills from the Moors
-motivated by strong crusading spirit that helped them remove remnants of Muslin influence in their religion
Why were Spain and Portugal among the first European nations to explore?
Prince Henry (sent them to the coast of Africa in 15th century)
What Portuguese prince prepared his sailors for exploration?
Vasco da Gama
Name the first Portuguese explorer to land in India
Portugal (early 16th century)
What European country was the first to establish trade with Japan and China?
Who was the ruler of the Aztecs when the Spanish conquistadors arrived?
The Chinese allowed limited trade with the Europeans during the early period of European exploration
What was China's response to European exploration?
-Strong leaders and skillful diplomacy
-Siamese leaders quickly recognized tension between French & British powers and used this to their advantage
Why where the Siamese able to avoid European colonization?
Bartolome de Las Casas
What Roman Catholic friar traveled to the Americas as a missionary to the Indians?
Because the Roman Church became the protector of the Indians.
Why did many Indians convert to the Roman Catholic Church?
-Horses made it possible for the Indians to hunt buffalo herds more effectively. They were fast & strong.
-Horses made carrying loads and travel much easier
-Pigs were most destructive - they ran wild & tended to eat many plants used by Indians for food including corn
-Pigs were carriers of various diseases that spread throughout the wildlife and into the Indian's food supply
Describe the impact of the introduction of horses and pigs to the Americas
-Killed large number of Indians & spread rapidly
-Death toll was great
-Indians had no exposure to these diseases so they had no immunity
What impact did human-borne diseases have on the Indian population?
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa that Vasco da Gama rounded
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
Who financed Christopher Columbus' trip to sail west hoping to discover a shorter rout to China and the Indies?
This person sailed west from Spain in an effort to sail around the world in 1519. His journey proved that Columbus' theory was correct that it was possible to reach the East by sailing west.
His ships rounded the tip of South America and crossed the Pacific Ocean. Tragically, Magellan was killed in the Philippines but the surviving members of his crews continued the voyage and returned to Spain.
What happened to Ferdinand Magellan's three year journey?
Sir Francis Drake
Who was sent from England to sail around the world in 1577?
Who sent Sir Francis Drake to sail around the world on this three year journey?
Spanish term for "conquerors" these men discovered and brutally destroyed Indian civilization in Central and South America in search of gold
Who was the conquistador that encountered the Aztecs in the region of modern Mexico?
In what year did Hernando Cortes arrive in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City)?
He convinced him that the king of Spain was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl and demanded the Aztecs submit to Cortes as the king's representative which he did and then urged the Aztec people to do the same.
What did Cortes convince the Aztec ruler, Montezuma of and forced him to do?
He massacred the Aztecs, and under a four month seize he destroyed Tenochtitlan & in it's place built Mexico City. Over the temple of the Aztecs, Cortes built a Roman Catholic cathedral.
What ended up happening to Tenochtitlan and the Aztecs under Cortes?
Proved to be even more brutal than Cortes. Traveled to the new world to find gold and he used violent methods to seize it any chance he got.
-led a small group of men & sailed from Panama to Peru, working his way through jungles for 6 months attacking villages along the way
What Indian nation did Pizarro conquer?
He took the Inca, Atahualpa, captive. The Inca offered to fill the room where they kept him captive with gold and silver in exchange for his release. The Inca gave Pizarro the gold and silver (13,000 lbs of gold/ 26,000 lbs of silver) but he brutally murdered Atahualpa anyway.
How did Pizarro make himself the ruler of the Inca Empire?
Spoke out against the cruel treatment of the Indians by their fellow Spaniards. He spent the rest of his life seeking the passage of laws to protect the Indians from slavery & forced conversion to the Roman Church. He played a key role in improving the treatment of the Indians.
What did Bartolome de Las Casas do when he served as a missionary to the Indians in the Americas?
Battle of Lepanto
The battle between the Ottomans and the Roman Catholic nations, in 1571 led by Phillip II of Spain, where the Ottoman naval fleet was defeated.