Meteorology Chapter 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Autumnal Equinox
The astronomical beginning of fall
Winter Solstice
The day with the fewest hours of sunlight in the Northern Hemisphere
thermograph
A recording thermometer
Isotherms
Lines of equal temperature
Heating Degree Day
Used as the index for fuel consumption
summer solstice
The day when, at noon, the sun is at its highest position in the Northern Hemisphere
maximum thermometer
Thermometer with a small constriction just above the bulb
Hypothermia
The rapid lowering of human body temperature can produce this
Radiometer
Obtains air temperature by measuring emitted infrared energy
radiation inversion
a measured increase in air temperature just above the ground
Insolation
Abbreviation for incoming solar radiation
minimum thermometer
Thermometer most likely to contain alcohol
Vernal equinox
The astronomical beginning of spring
Orchard heaters
These mix the air next to the ground by setting up convection currents
Growing degree days
Used as a guide to planting and for determining the approximate date when crops will be ready for harvesting
Instrument shelter
Protects instruments from the weather elements
controls of temperature
the main factors that cause variations in temperature from one place to another
Rising in the southeast and setting in the southwest
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere on December 21, the sun may be described as
The closeness of the earth to the sun
What is not a primary reason for the seasons in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere?
Infrared radiation emitted by the earth's surface
The primary cause of a radiation inversion is
In the Northern Central Plains of the United States
The largest annual range of temperatures is found
Decreases
Near the earth's surface, when outgoing infrared energy exceeds incoming solar energy, the air temperature
Sprinkle the trees with water
If tonight's air temperature is going to drop into the middle 20's and a fairly stiff wind is predicted, probably the best way to protect an orchard against a hard freezing is to
Range
The difference between the highest and lowest temperatures for any given day is call the daily _____ of temperature
Equator
The _____ is the latitude at which the days and nights are always of equal length
radiation cooling
On a clear, calm night, the ground and air above cool mainly by this process
Autumnal Equinox
At the North Pole, the sun rises above the horizon on the vernal equinox and stays above the horizon until the ______
Range
The difference between the average temperature of the warmest and coldest month is called the annual ______ of temperature
Summer
During January, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and ______ in the Southern Hemisphere
Northwest
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, on the summer solstice, the sun rises in the northeast and sets in the ________
Clear, calm, dry, long night
List the four necessary conditions for the development of a strong radiation inversion
Colder, warmer
In a clear weather the air next to the ground is usually _______ that the air above during the night, and ______ than the air above during the day
Cooler summers and warmer winters than at present
The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees. If the amount of tilt were decreased to 5 degrees, we would expect to observe in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
There is little water vapor in the air to absorb and reradiate infrared radiation
An important reason for the large daily temperature range over deserts is
wind-chill index
What relates the body heat loss with wind to an equivalent temperature with no wind?
bimetallic thermometer
This is not a liquid-in-glass thermometer
True
Hypothermia is most common in cold, wet weather
True
The greatest variation in daily temperature normally occurs at the ground
False
One reason why water warms and cools more slowly than land is because water has a lower heat capacity
True
An ordinary liquid-in-glass thermometer held in direct sunlight will always indicate a temperature higher than the true air temperature
False
In most areas, the warmest time of the day about 5 feet above the ground occurs around noon
True
During the summer, humid regions typically have lower daily temperature ranges and lower maximum temperatures es han do drier regions
True
The earth comes closer to the sun in January than it does in July
True
One reason why summers are warmer than winters in middle latitudes is that during the summer middle latitudes receive more direct sunlight than during the winter
False
During the afternoon, the greatest temperature difference between the surface air and the air several feet above occurs on clear, calm afternoons
True
At Barrow, Alaska, there are fewer hours of sunlight during the middle of July than there are at the end of June
False
If two cities have the same mean annual temperature, then their temperatures throughout the year must be quite similar
True
Incoming sunlight in the middle latitudes is less in winter than in summer partly because the sun's rays slant more and spread their energy over a larger area
False
Radiation temperature inversions are best developed in the early morning just before sunrise
True
In the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, between Christmas and New Years, the length of daylight increases each day
False
If you travel from Dallas, Texas to St. Paul, Minnesota during July, you are more likely to experience greater temperature variations than if you made the same trip in January
False
In a hilly region, the best place to plant cops that are sensitive to low temperatures is on the valley floor
True
In the upper atmosphere, the air temperature may exceed 1000C, yet an astronaut exposed to this temperature would not necessarily feel hot
True
Light therapy has been used to help alleviate winter SAD