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The process of binary fission begins with one parent cell and results in the production of:
2 daughter cells
Why do bacterial cells not undergo mitosis and meiosis?
Prokaryotic cells do not possess the machinery to produce spindle fibers and therefore cannot move chromosomes around in the cell,
replication of DNA in a prokaryote does not occur in one phase, but instead occurs continuously, and most bacteria have only one circular chromosome that is attached to the cell membrane
What can influence the length of the lag phase of growth?
Conditions of the new media that bacteria is transferred to, conditions of the old media that bacteria is transferred from, characteristics of the individual organism
A culture of E. coli contains 1000 cells/ml with a generation time of 30 minutes. How many organisms would be present after a period of 2 hours?
Why is it impossible for a culture of bacteria, in a single tube, to remain in the log phase of the growth cycle forever?
Nutrients in the media are depleted as the number of bacteria increase, metabolic wastes accumulate as the number of bacteria increase, space is limited as the number of bacteria increase
Bacteria growth is measured by estimating:
The number of viable cells per millimeter of culture
Why might it be better for a researcher to use the spread plating method versus the pour plate method when measuring bacterial growth?
Pour plating may cause cells suspended in the melted agar during preparation to be heat damaged and to form smaller colonies than those growing on top of the agar
What is the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in a culture where the sample was plated using the spread plate method at a dilution of 1/100,000 and the number of colonies counted is 90?
What would be considered an enrichment media?
Chocolate and blood agar
What distinguishes the log phase of bacterial growth from other phases?
The number of bacteria increases significantly in number and they are metabolically active.
What is typically the difference between the bacterial chromosome and a plasmid?
The chromosome contains genes that are essential for survival, whereas the plasmid contains genes that are helpful to the bacterium but not essential for survival
In the process of reverse transcription, often carried out by retroviruses
mRNA makes DNA
The start codon for translation is typically _________ and codes for the amino acid ________.
The lac operon is regulated not only by enzyme induction but also by a process known as catabolite repression. Because of catabolite repression, what happens when glucose and lactose are both present in the environment?
The lac operon is repressed
In prokaryotes, both transcription and translation take place in the ___________; whereas in eukaryotes the process of transcription takes place in the ____________ .
When lactose is present in the environment, bacterial cells are able to produce enzymes necessary to metabolize lactose. However, when lactose is not present, the enzymes are not produced. What regulatory mechanism is at work in the lac operon?
A DNA sequence AATTGCCCTT undergoes a mutation to AATTCCCCTT. Categorize this mutation.
Which of the following enzymes is used more frequently on the lagging strand and little or not at all on the leading strand during DNA replication:
Which of the following RNA molecules serve as the template for protein synthesis?
The reading frame (start) of protein synthesis in bacteria always begins with:
AUG (encoding methionine)
E. coli is present in a liquid sample at a concentration of between 10^4 and 10^6 bacteria per mL. To determine the precise number of endospores in the sample, it would be best to NOT use:
A counting chamber, to plate out an appropriate dilution of the sample on nutrient agar, using a spectrophotometer
Unlike a frameshift mutation, a missense mutation can cause:
An altered polypeptide
Budding is a form of asexual reproduction/replication in:
Yeasts and some animal viruses
In most bacteria the chromosomal DNA is:
Double stranded and circular
T/F: DNA polymerase reads both strands of DNA in the opposite direction, continuously, producing lead strands of template DNA
False; DNA polymerase reads both strands of DNA in the OPPOSITE direction, producing LAGGING strands of REPLICATE DNA
T/F: Chocolate agar is an example of a chemically defined solid medium containing intact red blood cells from humans
False; Chocolate agar is an example of an ENRICHED solid medium containing lysed red blood cells from SHEEP
T/F: To produce a completely anaerobic environment, a MacConkey agar plate would be best to use
T/F: The flow of genetic information always flows from DNA to RNA to protein, with DNA being copied during a process called transcription
False; The flow of genetic information DOESN'T ALWAYS flow from DNA to RNA to protein, with DNA being copied during a process called REPLICATION
What are four phases of bacterial growth? Label graph of mesophilic pathogen in batch culture. What temp would this bacterial pathogen grow best at? Give a scientific name of such organism and the name of a disease that it causes
Lag phase (over), log phase (slant up), stationary phase (over), death phase (slant down). Mesophilic: 25-40 celcius (humans) Psychrophilics:15-20 celcius (Bacillus globisporus) Thermophilics:50-60 celcius (Bacillus stearothermophilus)
Explain the differences among obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, and obligate aerobes and describe the growth of each of them on thioglycolate slant medium
Obligate anaerobes are killed by free oxygen and bacteria is grown at bottom, facultative anaerobes are affected when oxygen is not present and bacteria grows throughout, and obligate aerobes needs oxygen to fully function and bacteria grows on top
Explain why obligately anaeirobic endospore-forming bacteria can be a significant problem in the medical industry, especially with regard to pathogenic bacteria
Compare and contrast the process of semiconservative replication and the process of transcription. Includion a simple digram that illustrates how one circular template (parental) DNA molecule of a prokaryotic chromosome is replicated into 2 daughter chromosomes in a smiconservative manner and how a segment of that DNA can be transcribed into mRNA
Semiconservative replication has antiparallel strands, a 5' 3' nucleotide arrangement (strand run in opposite directions= 5 to 3 and 3 to 5), whereas transcription uses both strands. (Page 185)
List one micro-related news topic and provide justification for discussion, give a brief summary of the mosquito video and how it is relevant to micro, list and describe disease and its causative agent that has not been discussed on this quiz
C. tetani; causative agent is the absence of oxygen
Stages of Krebs Cycle (Waterfall)
Anabolic, redox reaction, decarboxylation, phosphorylation
Fungi like a lower pH (More acidic)
Bacteria like a higher pH (More basic)
4 different steps
Chemiosmosis step 1
Protons pumped out of cell wall during electron transport
Chemiosmosis step 2
Pass back in through channels in the ATP synthesis
Chemiosmosis step 3
Phosphorylate ADP to make ATP. Flow of protons provide the energy to drive this reaction
Chemiosmosis step 4
Rotation of flagella. Flow of protons also provide the energy for this
Krebs Cycle using inorganic terminal e- acceptors other than O2. Energy yield is less than aerobic but more than fermentation
Protein synthesis, DNA replication, lipid formation
Occurs in yeast and viruses
Double-stranded helix held together by hydrogen bonds (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
Twisted, spiral, cork screw rope ladder
Sugar phosphate backbone
The structural portion
The "rungs" of the ladder; the coding portion
A (adenine), T (thyamine),G (guanine), C (cytosine); the DNA alphabet
Information Transfer Cycle
1.DNA to DNA (Replication) 2.DNA to RNA (Transcription) 3.RNA to Protein (Translation)
To write in a "different font" Taking DNA: A,T,G,C and turning it into RNA: A,U,G,C. (U being uracil) Only one strand serves as an RNA template.
Single stranded, 3 different types (messengerRNA, ribosomalRNA, transferRNA)
A "different language" all together. Role of ribosomes
Occurs in retro viruses (backwards) HIV
An enzyme that makes more DNA
Can only add onto 3' end
Leading strand can continue to add DNA until it gets to the end
Lagging strand is made in pieces so it can only make a few pieces at a time (gaps, discontinuous)
Can start on its own almost anywhere. Simultaneous transcription and translation right away because their are no boundaries.
Methyanine- start codon
UAA, UAG, UGA
Amino acid links
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids
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