Biology Finals--Semester 2

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What is the name of the structure as named by Watson and Crick?
Double Helix
The backbone of a DNA molecule is made up of what 2 components?
-Deoxyribose Sugar
-Phosphate Group
What are 3 parts of a nucleotide found in DNA?( Include all possible bases)
-Deoxyribose Sugar
-Phosphate Group
-Nitrogen Base (A,G,T,C)
Arrange these words from largest to smallest in size. (Chromosome, Nucleus, Cell, DNA, Nucleotide)
--Cell
--Nucleus
--Chromosome
--DNA
--Nucleotide
During DNA replication a DNA strand that has the bases CTAGGT produces a strand with what bases?
GATCCA
New
What type of DNA strands are found in the DNA molecules after replication?
What sugar is found in RNA?
Ribose
What types of RNA is involved in protein synthesis?
-mRNA
-tRNA
-rRNA
What happens during the process of translation?
It decodes the mRNA message
Compare DNA and RNA
-Different stages
-Uracil in RNA
-RNA is single stranded
What is produced during transcription?
Messenger RNA
A DNA segment is changed from--AATTAG--to--AAATAG--What type of mutation is this an example of?
Substitution or Point Mutation
A DNA segment is changed from--ATTAGAAA--to--ATAGAAA--What type of mutation is this an example of?
Deletion or Frameshift Mutation
What is the codon that specifies for the amino acid Methionine? (The start codon)
AUG
What 2 codons specify for the amino acid Cysteine?
-UGU
-UGC
How many codons are there and why are there only 20 amino acids then?
-64
-Because the amino acids repeat
How can you determine an organisms phenotype?
By looking at it
What are the sex chromosomes of a normal female?male?
-XX
-XY
What type of inheritance controls roan cows? What do they look like?
-Codominance
-Spotted
How many total chromosomes are there?
46 (23 pairs)
Which set of chromosomes are the sex chromosomes?
23
What is the name of a genetic disorder we have discussed that can be diagnosed by a karyotype?
Kleinfelters, Down Syndrome, Turners Disease
What is the goal of Human Genome Project?
To determine the sequence of DNA
What is the purpose of gene therapy?
Change DNA in people to cure genetic disorders
Why was Dolly considered a clone?
Because they took the cells from other lambs to create Dolly
On the Origin of Species
In 1859, Darwin published his revolutionary ideas in a work called....
What was the major concept in Lamrack's Theory of Evolution by aquired characteristics?
Use or disuse
According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, what organisms tend to survive?
Ones best fitted for their enviroments
Every birds unique beak represents a different ______ that enables it to survive in its enviroment.
Adaptations
What is the term for the formationn of a new species?
Speciation
What type of isolation led to the development of new species of finches on the Galapagos Islands?
Geographic Isolation
Which pattern of natural selection would lead to a population of birds with members that specialize in different types of food?
Adaptive Radiation
In genetic drift, what cause allele frequencies to change?
Chance
When is a theory useful?
Only when it can be tested
How do insects become immune to insecticides?
Antibiotic Resistance
What cause antibiotic resistance in bacteria?
Mutations