APCS Principles Internet Review
These are terms for APCS Principles to help prepare for the AP exam. The terms come from a variety of places such as code.org, the CSP Framework, Dan Garcia's review sheet and other terms that were challenging to students in class.
Terms in this set (56)
Reducing information and detail to focus on essential characteristics. It is typically possible to look at a system at many levels of abstraction, depending on how much detail is necessary to approach the challenge at hand.
A computer that awaits and responds to requests for data
Example: a DNS server awaits and responds to requests for URLs to be translated to IP addresses.
A computer that requests data stored on a server
Example: When you type an address into your browser, your computer is the client and it sends the request to the DNS server.
Domain Name System - The service that translates URLs to IP addresses.
HyperText Transfer Protocol - the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Transmission Control Protocol - provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
Uniform Resource Locator - An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org).
used in public key encryption, it is scheme in which the key to encrypt data is different from the key to decrypt.
In an asymmetric encryption scheme the decryption key is kept private and never shared, so only the intended recipient has the ability to decrypt a message that has been encrypted with a public key.
Public Key Encryption
Used prevalently on the web, it allows for secure messages to be sent between parties without having to agree on, or share, a secret key. It uses an asymmetric encryption scheme in which the encryption key is made public, but the decryption key is kept private.
a "hard' problem for a computer is one in which it cannot arrive at a solution in a reasonable amount of time
a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters
Cipher - the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
When you attempt to decode a secret message without knowing all the specifics of the cipher, you are trying to "crack" the encryption.
a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
Random Substitution Cipher
an encryption technique that maps each letter of the alphabet to a randomly chosen other letters of the alphabet.
a predication made by Gordon Moore in 1965 that computing power will double every 1.5-2 years, it has remained more or less true ever since.
a piece of code that is capable of copying itself and typically has a detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.
the fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers.
short for Distributed Denial of Service. DDoS is a type of DOS attack where multiple compromised systems, which are often infected with a Trojan, are used to target a single system causing a Denial of Service (DoS) attack.
a trial and error method used by application programs to decode encrypted data such as passwords or Data Encryption Standard (DES) keys, through exhaustive effort rather than employing intellectual strategies.
Requests a specified web page or other data
Submits some data for the server to accept or process
Hyper Text markup Language - the standard markup language for creating Web pages. .
the number of bits per second that can be transmitted along a digital network.
the transmission capacity of a computer network or other telecommunication system.
the delay before a transfer of data begins following an instruction for its transfer.
Request for Comments - in the context of Internet governance, is a type of publication from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Internet Engineering Task Force - the premier Internet standards body, developing open standards through open processes.
a system of rules that explain the correct conduct and procedures to be followed in formal situations
Internet Protocol - a set of rules governing the format of data sent over the Internet or other network.
unit of data that travels along a given network path.
a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched networks that uses 32-bit addresses
the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet that uses 128 bits
a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Internet Service Provider
Secure Sockets Layer - the standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser.
Transport Layer Security - cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
the inclusion of extra components that are not strictly necessary to functioning, in case of failure in other components.
Minimum Spanning Tree
a subset of the edges of a connected, edge-weighted (un)directed graph that connects all the vertices together, without any cycles and with the minimum possible total edge weight.
an adaptation of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.
It is scheme in which the key to encrypt data is the same as the key to decrypt.
the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of adversaries
breaking cryptographic systems
Ciphertext only attacks
The attacker has only ciphertext(s).
Known plaintext attacks
The attacker has ciphertext(s) and plaintext(s) for some of the ciphertexts.
Chosen plaintext attacks
The attacker has ciphertexts and can choose a limited number of plaintexts and compute corresponding ciphertexts.
Chosen ciphertext attacks
The attacker has the same ability as with chosen plaintext attacks, plus he/she can query a limited number of ciphertexts and get the plaintext for them.
Message in "regular" english that needs to be encrypted or has been decrypted
Message that is encrypted
DES, 3DES, AES
Modern symmetric ciphers
Main Tenets of Information Security
RSA, Ellyptic Curve
Examples of Asymetric Encryption
the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
a function that is easy to compute (Alice), but hard to crack given the random input (Bob).
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