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146 terms

Ancient History Exam

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Cheops
pyramids at Gizeh were built for him
Lydians
contributed coined money
Cuneiform
sumerian writing
Rosetta Stone
helped decipher heiroglyphics
polytheistic
worship of many gods
scribe
educated person who could read and write
papyrus
old paper, made from leaves of grassy plants
Mt. Sinai
where Moses received the 10 commandments
Damascus
oldest continuously inhabited city in the world
Amon-Ra
god of the sun
anthropomorphic
human-like
Aramaic
language spoken by Jesus
Hittites
used iron to make tools & wheels
royal road
most famous Road of Persians
Hermes
greek messenger of the gods
Athena
goddess of wisdom - symbol is the owl
Hera
wife of zeus, goddess of marriage
Demeter
goddess of grain and crops
Apollo
god of light, music, and truth
Poseidon
god of the sea
Zeus
king of the gods, decision maker
Hephaestus
god of metal craft, lame & ugly
Aphrodite
goddess of physical beauty & love
Hades
god of the underworld
Dionysus
god of wine & drama
Ares
god of war
Hestia
goddess of hearth & family
Artemis
goddess of the moon & hunting
Achilles
greatest Greek warrior
Hector
greatest Trojan warrior
Paris
abducted Helen - the cause of the Trojan War
Agamemnon
leader of Greek expedition of Troy
Cyclops
one-eyed giant
Theseus
killed the minotaur
Hippocrates
founded the school of medicine (words: acute & chronic)
Thales
earliest philosopher
Pythagoras
mathematics
Democritus
atomic theory
Socrates
encouraged students to think for themselves
Socrates
said, "The unexamined life is not worth living"
Socrates
believed that admitting ignorance is the beginning of knowledge
Socrates
executed by drinking poison
Socrates
taught Plato
Plato
wrote THE REPUBLIC
Plato
student of Socrates
Plato
founded the "Academy"
Plato
taught Aristotle
Aristotle
student of Plato
Aristotle
taught Alexander the Great
Sophists
believed in education
Hoplites
greek foot soldiers
Helots
Spartan slaves
Lycurgus
developed laws in Sparta
Draco
Established a HARSH law code in Athens
Herodotus & Thucydides
ancient historians
Marathon
Site of most famous battle of Persian War
Sparta
most powerful city in Peloponnesus
Athens
controlled the Delian League
Koine
a dialect of Greek Language
Hegemony
dominance of one state over another
Ptolemy
defeated 3 others to become king of Egypt
Sappho
writer of lyric poetry
Pericles
Athenian leader who died during a plague
Alexander the Great
established 20 cities, rose to power during Hellenistic Age
Res Publica
"the people's thing" (Greek)
Mare Nostrum
"our sea" (Greek)
Latins
tribe of Indo-Europeans whose settlement became Rome
Carthage
Rome's enemy in Punic Wars
Carthage
ruled by Hannibal
Hannibal
famous military leader of Carthage
Tiber River
Rome founded on its banks
Mesopotamia
land between the rivers
Epic of Gilgamesh
compared to Moses' story
Assyrian weapons
made of iron
theocracy
government ruled by a priest (considered to be the representative of the gods)
Ziggurat
Sumerian temple
Code of Hammurabi
first effort by an empire to record laws - like 10 commandments
Assur
chief god of the Assyrians
Tigris & Euphrates
major rivers of Mesopotamia
agriculture
most important factor in development of civilization
Hatshepsut
first female pharaoh
Po River
largest river valley in Italy
crops of Italy
grain, grapes, olives
Troy
founder of Rome came from here
Octavian
first emperor of Rome
Aeneas
hero of Virgil's epic
First Triumvirate
Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar
Sulla
remained dictator for 3 years
Battle of Actium
Octavium defeated Cleopatra and Marc Antony here
Augustus
emperor when Christ was born during the "Pax Romana"
Marcus Aurelius
death marked the end of "Pax Romana"
Marcus Aurelius
wrote MEDITATIONS
Claudius
had physical handicaps
Caligula
a.k.a. "Little Boots"
Caligula
deranged, insane, morally corrupt
Romulus Augustus
last emporer in Rome
Nero
emperor who persecuted christians
Nero
blamed for terrible fire in Rome
Nero
emperor who murdered his mother, Agrippina
Hadrian
built a 73 mile wall across Britain
Dioletis
divided the empire into east & west
Constantine
issued the Edict of Milan
Byzantine Empire
survived until 1453
Byzantine Empire
Eastern portion of the Roman Empire
Huns
fierce Nomadic horsemen
Angles & Saxons
took over Britain
Visigoths
western Germans
Franks & Alemanni
took over Gaul
Rome
Peter and Paul were martyred here
Peter
first pope
Stephen
first martyr, died in Jerusalem
Theodosius
closed all non-Christian places of worship
Paul
important "voice" in early Christianity
Sanhedrin
Jewish ruling council
Pharisees
"seperated ones"
Essenes
pious Jews devoted to prayer
Sadducees
wealthy, well-educated Jews
Zealots
people of action
creed
statement of religious belief
heresy
False teachings
Orthodoxy
true or accepted teachings
Hagia Sophia
Orthodox cathedral built in Constantinople, built by Justinian,
Justinian
a great Byzantine emperor, had the Hagia Sophia built
1453
end of the Byzantine Empire (by the Ottoman Turks), beginning of the Ottoman Empire
jihad
means "struggle"
Muslim
follower of Islam
Bedouins
nomads who moved from oasis to oasis
Mecca
holiest city of Islam
Mecca
where the Kaaba is located
Mecca
Muslims pray towards this city
Kaaba
"cube"
Kaaba
ancient shrine that Muslims today believe was built by the prophet Abraham
Jews & Christians
"People of the Book"
Mosque
muslim place of worship
Muezzin
person who calls Muslims to pray
Mullah
teacher of Islamic law
Caliph
one of the leaders of Islam after Mohammad
Allah
Arabic word for God
5 Pillars
Allah is God. prayer. give to the poor. fasting. pilgrimage to Mecca
5 Pillars
duties of every Muslim
Ramadan
the Holy month of Islam
Hajj
pilgrimage Muslims make to Mecca
Abraham
connects Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Julius Caesar
made dictator for life
Julius Caesar
assinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
Julius Caesar
crossed the Rubicon