AMSCO Ch. 15-16
Terms in this set (44)
A set of changes in technology that dramaticalky increased manufacturing productivity
A policy of extending a country's political and economic power
A production method in which an item moved from worker to worker, with each worker performing the same task repeatedly (created by Henry Ford in the early 20th century)
in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
(The use of assembly lines allowed companies to produce more standardized products more rapidly and with less-skilled workers than before)
A principle in modern factories in which businesses seek to maximize profit by substituting one factor of production for another... through mechanization/automation, companies have replaced workers with machines
the idea that modern industrial production has moved away from mass production in huge factories, as pioneered by Henry Ford, towards specialized markets based on small flexible manufacturing units
the part of the economy that
raw materials from the natural environment (farming, mining, fishing, forestry)
the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods and
natural resources (manufacturing and building)
the part of the economy that
rather than working with natural resources (marketing, banking, design)
Jobs that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information.
research and developmemt
Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill.
decision making & government and business
The potential of a job to produce more jobs
(Evident in secondary sector jobs)
Least cost theory
A model that attempts to predict the location of a manufacturing site relative to the location of the resources needed to produce the product and where the final product will be sold (market)
Bulk-reducing industry/ weight-losing industry/ raw material-oriented industry/ raw material-dependent industry
An industry in which the inputs (materials, etc.) weighs more than the final product (refined copper)
Bulk-gaining industry/ weight-gaining industry/ market-oriented industry/ market-dependent industry
An industry in which products are the heaviest when finished (soft drinks-water)
Energy-oriented or energy-dependent industry
Energy demands are so high that factories are built in close proximity to major sources of abundant, cheap power source (aluminum)
Getting raw materials to a factory and getting finished products to the market
The wages and salaries of employees
The spatial grouping of businesses in order to share costs (when several factories share the cost of building an access road to connect with a public highway)
Weber's model of least cost theory; the market for a good is at one location and the resources needed to make the good are obtained at two other locations
Human and physical geographic features are uniform throughout the entire area
Labor-oriented industries or labor-dependent industries
Industries that produce goods or services requiring a large amount of labor (agriculture, mining, hospitality)
When the location decision for a factory is dependent upon the location of other factories
(Allows access to same services and monitoring of competitor)
A system in which the inputs needed in assembly process arrive at the assembly plant very close to when they are needed
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants. (Usually a service industry)
Upper floors of a large building in the downtown of a city that allows the executives of a business to easily interact with executives from other nearby business institutions
outsourcing clerical activities (e.g. payroll, call centers, etc.) to LDCs where labor is cheaper
The practice of exporting U.S. jobs to lower paid employees in other nations.
The contracting of work out to noncompany employees or other companies
Exchange goods without involving money. (To kill a mockingbird)
when two regions, through trade, can specifically satisfy each other's demands and desire one another's goods or services
groups of countries that agree to a common set of trade rules (NAFTA)
newly industrialized country
Companies that have moved industrial production from highly developed countries to
Companies that operate in more than one country
new international division of labor
A system of employment in the various economic sectors spread throughout world
(Core countries are @ quaternary sector , middle income countries are @ secondary sector, LDCs are @ the primary sector)
Export Processing Zones
Manufacturing areas which offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to foreign firms
an export-processing zone located in Mexico-home to about 3000 factories.
Economy that emphasizes services and technology rather than industry and manufacturing
abandoned polluted industrial sites in central cities; often empty become old buildings are usually torn down
The region of the US hit hardest by deindustrialization, the Northeast and lands around the Great Lakes
Corporate parks or business parks
New job areas that are created that shape the postindustrial landscape
Technopole/ Growth Poles/ Growth Centers
Center of high-tech manufacturing, research/development, and information generation.
Positive outcomes in addition to the main outcome of a growth pole policy
the negative impacts on a region of the economic growth of some other region.
(Loss of people to technopoles)
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