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Individual differences

Dissimilarities between or among two or more people

mental test

instrument designed to measure a subject's ability to reason, plan and solve problems; an intelligence test.

differential psychology

scientific study of differences between or among two or more people.


the ability to learn and adapt to an environment; often used to refer to general intellectual capacity, as opposed to cognitive ability or mental ability, which often refer to more specific abilities such as memory or reasoning.

Mental ability

capacity to reason, plan, solve problems; cognitive ability.


standard of measurement; a scale.


practice of measuring a characteristic such as mental ability, placing it on a scale or metric.

intelligence test

Instrument designed to measure the ability to reason learn and solve problems.


abbreviation for general mental ability

General mental ability

the nonspecific capacity to reason, learn and solve problems in any of a wide variety of ways and circumstances.

g-ocentric model

Tendency to understand and predict the behavior of workers simply by examining "g".

Muscular tension

physical quality of muscular strength

muscular power

physical ability to lift, pull, push or otherwise move an object; unlike endurance this is a one-time max. effort.


Occupational Information Network. Collection of electronic databases based on well-developed taxonomies, that has updated and replaced the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles."

tacit knowledge

Action-oriented, goal-directed knowledge, acquired without direct help from others; colloquially called "street smarts"

procedural knowledge

knowing how

declarative knowledge

understanding what is required to perform a task; knowing information about a job or job task.

Emile Durkheim

French Sociologist the division of labor in Society (1893). Unlike Marx, believed that labor was divided between managers and workers because of specialized functions. co-dependent

Max Weber

thought that bureaucracy was the ideal form of organization; included a formal hierarchy, division of labor, and clear set of operating procedures.

classic organizational theory

assumes that their is one best form of organization, regardless of other circumstances. places a premium on control of individual behavior by the organization.

Raven's Progressive Matrices


Proxy Measures

EX: SAT (without the writing section).

statistical control

using statistical techniques to control for the influence of certain variables; allows researchers to concentrate exclusively on the relationship between the primary relationship of interest.

statistical power

the likelihood of finding a statistically significant difference when a true difference exists.

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