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MAJORS BIO SPRING 2018 FINAL REVIEW
Terms in this set (95)
meter: surrounding an area
dermis: outermost cell layer of an organism
venous: fluid introduced into the blood
lysis: breakdown of red blood cells
itis: inflammation of the chest
Fat must be partially digested by bacteria in the large intestine before it can be absorbed, which is not the case for carbohydrates
How does digestion and absorption of fat differ from that of carbohydrates?
Smooth muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal
What is peristalsis?
Begins the breakdown of proteins in the stomach
Which of the following statements about pepsin is true?
The epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea
Which of the following statements about the mammalian digestive system is true?
Increase the activity of the small intestine
Surgical removal of the pancreas would do what?
Bile is normally an ingredient of gastric juice
Which of the following statement(s) about bile is (are) true?
To leave the digestive tract, a substance must cross a cell membrane. During which stage of food processing does this take place?
About 7 liters of fluid are secreted each day into the intestinal tract. Which of the following does not secrete fluid?
After ingestion, the first type of macromolecule to be worked on by enzymes in the human digestive system is?
Which of these animals has a gastrovascular cavity?
Which of the following do not need a digestive system?
In the mammalian digestive system, what is the primary site of nutrient absorption?
In the stomach, food processing continues and secretions from stomach glands aid the initial digestion of?
A digestive cavity in which food enters an opening at one end and passes through the animal in one direction as it is digested is called?
Salivary glands secrete _______ to start the digestion of _______?
Villi and microvilli
The surface area of the small intestine is dramatically increased due to the presence of ________ on the inside surface.
Arterial pressure is 115 mm Hg when the ventricles contract and 75 mm Hg is between ventricular contractions
While shopping at your local drugstore, you stop at the blood pressure machine. It measures your blood pressure as 115/75. What do the numbers mean?
Veins usually carry blood that has been depleted of oxygen
The pulmonary vein carries blood that is rich in oxygen back to the heart. Is there anything unexpected about the name of this vein?
Standing still and at attention for long periods can result in inadequate venous return. The effects of this can be seen when even young and healthy soldiers sometimes faint when standing at attention for long periods. Which of the following never affects venous blood flow?
Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin
In the final reaction of the blood clotting cascade, before the formation of a network of fibers, the soluble plasma protein?
Fibrinogen and Immunoglobin
Human plasma proteins include which of the following?
As a physician listens to the heart of a human patient, he hears an atypical "Lub" sound. Which part of the heart might be malfunctioning?
Right atrium at the SA node
The electrical stimulus for each heartbeat begins in the?
Essentially all exchange of gases and other materials between the circulatory system and tissues of the body or the outside world occurs in the?
The transport of Oxygen
What is considered the most critical function of erythrocytes?
Imagine a red blood cell leaving the right ventricle of your heart. To which chamber of the heart will that cell return first?
Which structure prevents blood flowing back into the heart from the aorta between heartbeats?
Which component of the blood is the most important for clotting?
What does pulse directly measure?
In general, the vessels that carry blood away from the heart in a closed circulatory system are referred as?
No, because the brain does not use oxygen levels to regulate breathing
In an emergency room, a patient is found to have a depressed breathing rate, and subsequently low oxygen levels in the tissues. He is put on oxygen, but his respiration rate continues to be too low, and his oxygen saturation level in his tissues also continues to be low. Will increasing the oxygen levels that he is receiving correct his low breathing rate?
pressure in the alveoli increases
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because?
What is the correct order sequence of structures through which air passes through on the way into the mammalian lung?
Oxygen diffuses into the blood while carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood
In the alveoli?
The diaphragm contracts
Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
Countercurrent exchange mechanism
The main phenomenon that increases the efficiency of gas exchange in the fish gills is?
Combined with hemoglobin
In the blood, most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues?
chest cavity has a positive pressure
During inspiration of air into the lung of a mammal, the..?
as bicarbonate in plasma
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood of humans is transported?
Water is denser than air and water contains much less oxygen than air
Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?
Respiratory surfaces in all vertebrates have all of the features listed except?
The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
The opening to the tracheal system in insects is the?
The respiratory centers that controls ventilation of the lungs in mammals are located where?
Chemoreceptors for oxygen normally play the most important role in regulating breathing rate?
Ammonia, urea, and uric acid
What are the three main forms of nitrogenous wastes found in animals?
Which organisms have excretory structures known as protonephridia?
gain of water and loss of salt
The osmoregulatory and salt balance problems facing a freshwater fish are?
The _____ are the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidneys..?
The excretory structures of annelids are referred to as?
Overall size with cells and proteins usually being kept out of the filtrate
The filtration step in the formation or urine for animals sorts material only by?
collecting duct>renal pelvis>ureter>urinary bladder>urethra
What is the path or urine from the formation to excretion in the mammalian kidney?
It is mainly a consequence of blood pressure force-filtering the fluid
What can be said about the transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule?
The tuft of capillaries at which filtration takes place in the mammalian kidney is referred to as?
Bowman's capsule>proximal CT>loop of Henle>distal CT>collecting duct
What is the path of fluid as it is filtered from the blood and flows through the nephron?
The bulk of the reabsorption of useful materials by the kidney takes place in the?
Production of urea
Which of the following is not one of the functions of the mammalian kidney?
Are used to communicate between different organisms
Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect, They?
Hypothalamus; posterior pituitary
Oxytocin and ADH are produced by the ____ and stored in the ____?
Secretes tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads
Which of the following statements about the hypothalamus is incorrect, it?
Iodine is added to commercially prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which gland requires iodine to function properly?
Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following?
Cretinism- adrenal medulla
Which of the following endocrine disorders is not correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland?
Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH?
During stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and the medulla secretes adrenaline
Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct?
Which of the following hormones is secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress and promotes the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates?
Which of the following hormone sequences is correct?
A portal vessel carries blood from the hypothalamus directly where?
What is secreted by the pancreas?
What stimulates and maintains metabolic processes?
What stimulates the contraction of uterine muscle?
What is secreted by the anterior pituitary?
What raises blood glucose?
Budding, parthenogenesis, and regeneration
Asexual reproduction in animals might involve what?
Which of the following produce testosterone?
After sperm cells are produced, they are mainly stored in the?
Which of these does not contribute to the fluids that make up human semen?
The narrow opening of the uterus is the?
Inhibit secretion of FSH and LH
Inhibition of the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus will do what?
If the release of LH were inhibited in a female, which of the following events would not occur?
During the menstrual cycle, what is the main source of progesterone in females?
Progesterone-stimulates follicle development
Which of the following hormones is incorrectly paired with its action?
Which pituitary secretion stimulates sperm production?
Ovulation usually occurs on or about day ____ of a 28 day cycle.
If there is no fertilization, degeneration of the corpus luteum results in a drop in _____, which results in the sloughing off of the uterus' endometrium.
An egg develops without being fertilized
Which of the following characterizes parthenogenesis?
Which of the following male and female structures are least alike in function?
Prevents sperm from reaching seminal fluid
What does a vasectomy do?
Upon successful implantation
Pregnancy begins when?
Development of a follicle
FSH stimulates the?
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