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Terms in this set (79)
spinal cord, bone marrow
excessive sensitivity to pain
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Computed Axial Tomography
Central Nervous System
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Transient Ischemic Attack
One of body's regulatory systems. It controls all body activities by responding to internal and external stimuli and sending out signals or impulses to other nerves and carious body organs. The brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves make up the nervous system, which is divided into two groups: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
A nerve cell, the basic unit of the nervous system. It consists of a cell body, one or more dendrites, and a single axon. The two forms of neurons are sensory and motor.
Cell body of a neuron
The main part of the neuron. It is also called the soma.
A nerve cell process that conducts impulses to the cell body.
A nerve cell process that conducts impulses away from the cell body.
A neuron that carries impulses to the spinal cord and the brain. It is also known as the afferent neuron.
A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system out to muscles and glands. It stimulates a muscle to contract or a gland to secrete. It is also known as an efferent neuron.
A white, fatty substance, largely composed fo phospholipids and protein, that surrounds many nerve fibers.
The junction between two neurons.
A type of nerve cell that supports, protects, and nourishes the neuron. There are four kinds: astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
A large, star-shaped cell that provides nutrition.
One of many small interstitial cells in the brain and spinal cord that serve as phagocytic cells and responds to inflammation.
A columnar cell located in the brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid.
A type of neuroglial cell that produces myelin, the white matter of the nervous system.
The electrochemical process involved in neural transmission.
The sudden electrical charge transmitted across the cell membrane of a nerve fiber.
A chemical substance that is released from synaptic knobs into synaptic clefts. Neurotransmitters incluide acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, epiephrine, serotonin, histamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and the spinal cord.
The part pf the ventral nervous system contained with the cranium. The brain consists of four major parts: the cerebellum, the cerebrum, the diencephalon, and the brainstem.
The largest and uppermost portion of the brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, right and left, and five lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and insular.
The portion of the brain responsible for controlling the left side of the body. It also controls hearing and tactile and spatial perception.
The portion of the brain responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also responsible for verbal, analytical, and computational skills.
The part of the brain responsible for complex concentration, planning, and problem solving. It also contains the olfactory cortex, which interprets smells.
The part of the brain responsible for the interpretation for sensory input other than sight, sound, and smell. It contains the gustatory area responsible for taste.
The part of the brain responsible for visual recognition.
The part of the brain responsible for the interpretation of sensory experiences such as hearing and smell. It is also said to the center for emotion, memory, and personality.
Insular lobe/Center lobe
The part of the brain responsible for visceral or primitive emotions, drives, and reactions.
The part of the brain responsible for motor speech and for controlling the muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx
The part of the brain responsible for language comprehension
A large and transverse band of myelinated nerve fibers that conect the cerebral hemispheres. It is the largest commissure of the brain.
One of four islands of gray matter located in the white matter of the cerebrum: the lentiform nucleus, the caudate nucleus, the amygdaloid nucleus, and the claustrum. One function of the basal ganglia is to initiate and regulate muscular activity.
The centrally located portion of the brain surrounded by the cerebrum that contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.
The subdivision of the dienecephalon that sorts sensory impulses and directs them to the appropriate areas in the brain. It is basically a relay station for sensory impulses.
The subdivision of the diencephalon that assists in controlling body temperature, water balance, sleep, appetite, emotions of fear and pleasure, and involuntary functions.
The portion of the brain, located between the diencephalon and the spinal cord, that controls vital visceral activities. It consists of the midbran, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.
The section of the brainstem that controls visual and auditory reflexes, such as turning to listen to a loud noise.
The section of the brainstem that relays sensory impulses and regulates the rate and depth of breathing in coordination with the medulla oblongata.
The section of the brainstem that contains the cardiac center (which controls heart rate), the vasomotor center (which controls blood pressure), and the respiratory center (which controls the rate, rhythm, and depth of breathing).
The second largest portion of the brain, located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. The cerebellum coordinates skeletal muscle activity. Damage to this area can result in tremors, loss of muscle tone, and loss of equilibrium.
One of four small interconnected cavities within the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
A part of the center nervous system that conducts sensory and motor impulses, through nerves to the trunk and limbs, and serves as a center for reflex activities. Located in the vertebral canal, it extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the lumbar region.
Peripheral nervous system
The portion of the nervous system outside the central nervous system, consisting of the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves, and ganglia. It can be subdivided into the somatic and the autonomic nervous systems.
Somatic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system consisting of the cranial and spinal nerves that connect the central nervous system with the skin and skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous system is responsible for conscious activities.
Twelve pairs of nerves that emerge from the brainstem. Three pairs have only sensory fibers.
Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord. They provide two-way communication between the spinal cord and the body's extremities, neck, and trunk.
Autonomic nervous system
The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the action of the glands, the heart muscle, and the smooth muscles of hollow organs and vessels. The autonomic nervous system controls unconscious activities such as reflexes. It consists of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems.
A reaction in which the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system acts as an accelerator for organs whose functions are needed to meet a stressful situation.
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