What are layers of bony matrix around a central canal?
What is the site of osteocytes?
What is the longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves?
What are minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon?
What are inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance?
What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?
Provides flexibility and strength.
What are the important organic bone components?
Cells, collagen fibers, ground substances (proteoglycans and glycoproteins)
Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?
Provides hardness and strength and resists compression.
What cartilage supports the external ear?
What cartilage is between the vertebrae?
What cartilage forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)?
What cartilage forms the epiglottis?
What cartilage is articular cartilage?
What cartilage is found in the meniscus in the knee joint?
What cartilage connects the ribs to the sternum?
What cartilage is the most effective at resisting compression?
What cartilage is the most springy and flexible?
What cartilage is the most abundant?
What is the forehead bone?
What is the cheekbone?
What is the lower jaw?
What is the bridge of the nose?
What are the posterior bones of the hard palate?
What consists of much of the lateral and superior cranium?
What is the most posterior part of the cranium?
What is the single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor?
What are the tiny bones bearing tear ducts?
What is the anterior part of the hard palate?
What is the superior and medial nasal conchae formed from its projections?
What is the site of the mastoid process?
What is the site of the sella turcica?
What is the site of the cribriform plate?
What is the site of the mental foramen?
What is the site of the styloid processes?
What four bones contain paranasal sinuses?
Ethmoid, Frontal, Maxilla, Sphenoid
The condyles at what bone articulate with the atlas?
The foramen magnum is contained where?
The small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscle attach, is what?
The nasal septum is?
The middle ear is found where?
What bears an upward protrusion, the "cock's comb", or crista galli?
What bones contain alveoli bearing teeth?
Mandible and Maxilla
What is a suture?
Fibrous joint between skull bones.
What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?
Occipital and Parietal
What are the eight bones of the cranium?
Frontal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Right and Left Parietal, Right and Left Temporal
What two cranial bones have right and left components?
Parietal and Temporal
What are possible functions of the sinuses?
Lighten the skull and are resonance chambers for speech.
Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?
It articulates with all of the other cranial bones.
What vertebral type contains foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain?
Cervical Vertebra - typical (Atlas and Axis)
The dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)?
What has transverse processes faceted for articulate with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward?
What is composite bone and articulates with the hip bone laterally?
What is a massive vertebrae and is weight-sustaining?
What is known as the "tail bone" and is a vestigial fused vertebrae?
What supports the head and allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles?
What are two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral column?
Intervertebral discs and curvatures
What is a herniated disc?
A ruptured disc in which a portion of the disc protrudes outwards.
What problems might a herniated disc cause?
It could compress a nerve, leading to pain and possibly paralysis.
What two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth?
Thoracic and Sacral
What are secondary curvatures?
Cervical and Lumbar
What is the difference between a true rib and a false rib?
True ribs attach to the sternum and false ribs attach to the sternum indirection or not at all (floating).
What are the parts of the sternum from top to bottom?
Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid Process
A raised area on the lateral surface of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches?
What is the arm bone?
What are the two bones of the shoulder girdle?
Clavicle and Scapula
What are the forearm bones?
Radius and Ulna
What is the scapular region to which the clavicle connects?
What is the shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton?
What is the shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax?
What is a depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerus?
What is the process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment?
What is the "collarbone"?
What is the distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna?
What is the medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position?
What is the rounded knob on the humerus that adjoins the radius?
What is an anterior depression superior to the trochlea which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed?
What forearm bone is involved in the formation of the elbow joint?
What are the wrist bones?
What are the finger bones?
The heads of what bones form the knuckles?
What bones articulate with the clavicle?
Scapula and Sternum
What are characteristics of the pectoral girdle?
Lightweight, flexibility most important, insecure axial and limb attachments
What are characteristics of the pelvic girdle?
Weight-bearing most important, secure axial and limb attachments, massive
Distinguish between the true and false pelvis.
True pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled by bone. False pelvis is the area medial to flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim.
What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?
Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
What is the "sit down" bone of the coxal bone?
What is the point where the coxal bones join anteriorly?
What is the superiormost margin of the coxal bone?
What is a deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone?
What is the joint between the axial skeleton and the pelvic girdle?
What is the longest, strongest bone in the body?
What is a thin lateral leg bone?
What is the heavy medial leg bone?
What bones form the knee joint?
Tibia and Femur
What is the point where the patellar ligament attaches?
What is the kneecap?
What is the shinbone?
What is the medial ankle projection?
What is the lateral ankle projection?
What is the largest tarsal bone?
What are the bones forming the instep of the foot?
What are the ankle bones?
What is the opening in the hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami?
What are the sites for muscle attachment on the proximal femur?
Gluteal tuberosity and the greater and lesser trochanter
What tarsal bone "sits" on the calcaneus?
What is the weight-bearing bone of the leg?
What tarsal bone articulates with the tibia?
What is a fontanel?
Fibrous membranes that allow for the brain to growth and for slight compression during birth. The fontaels will ossify as the fetus ages.
What joint type typically allows a slight degree of movement?
What joint type includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis?
What joint type is found in essentially immovable joints?
What joint type includes sutures as the most remembered example?
What joint type is characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions?
What joint type is characterized by a fibrous articular capsule line with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity?
What joint type are all freely movable or diarthrotic?
What joint type has bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue?
What joint type includes the hip, knee, and elbow joints?
What is a ligament?
Dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches bones together and reinforces joints.
What is a tendon?
Dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches tendon to bone, reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint.
What is articular cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage that reduces friction where bones articulate.
What is the synovial membrane?
Loose connective tissue that produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule.
What is a bursa?
Fluid-filled synovial sac that cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone.
What is the joint between the axis and atlas?
What is the hip joint?
Ball and socket
What is the intervertebral joints between articular processes?
What is the joint between forearm bones and wrist?
What is the joint at the elbow?
What are the interphalangeal joints?
What are the intercarpal joints?
What is the joint between the tarsus and the tibia/fibula?
What is the joint between the skull and vertebral column?
What is the joint between the jaw and the skull?
What is the multiaxial joint?
Ball and socket
What are biaxial joints?
Condyloid or sadlle
What are uniaxial joints?
Hinge or pivot
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in the uniaxial joint?
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in a biaxial joint?
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in the multiaxial joint?
Three or more
What characteristics do all joints have in common?
All consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue
Which joint is more stable: the hip or the knee?
What two important factors contribute to the stability of the hip joint?
Deep socket for femur and a strongly reinforced articular capsule
What are two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee?
The menisci and ligaments and tendons crossing the joint
The shoulder joint is built for mobility. What are four factors that contribute to the large range of motion at the shoulder?
1. The large head of the humerus moves easily against the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula. 2. The glenoid labrum only slightly deepens the glenoid cavity. 3. The articular capsule is thin and loose. 4. There are few ligaments that strengthen the joint.
During muscle contraction, the ____ moves toward the _____.
What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?
Degenerative changes occur in diarthrotic joints; intervertebral discs begin to degenerate leading to increased joint stiffness and pain.
Define a sprain?
Ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching or torn away from the bony attachments.
Define a dislocation?
Bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity
What is connective tissue ensheathing a bundle of muscle cells?
What is a bundle of muscle cells?
What is the contractile unit of muscle?
What is a muscle cell?
What is the thin reticular connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell?
What is the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber?
What is a long filamentous organelle which a banded appearance found within muscle cells?
What is an actin- or myosin-containing structure?
What is a cord of collagen fibers that attaches muscle to bone?
The junction between a motor neuron's axon and the muscle cell membrane is called a myoneural junction or a __________
A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates is called a _____.
The actual gap between the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called a _____.
Within the axon terminal are many small vesicles containing a neurotransmitter called __________.
When the _____ reaches the ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released and diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine with receptors there.
Nerve impulse (action potential)
The greater influx of sodium ions in the muscle membrane results in the _____ of the membrane.
How was the gluteus maximus named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and relative size of the muscle
How was the adductor magnus named?
Action of the muscle and the relative size of the muscle
How was the biceps femoris named?
Number of origins and the location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region
How was the transversus abdominis named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and the direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
How was the extensor carpi ulnaris named?
Action of the muscle, location of the origin and/or insertion of the muscle, and location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region
How was the trapezius named?
Shape of the muscle
How was the rectus femoris named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
How was the external oblique named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
What is the term for the biceps brachii during elbow flexion?
What is the term that describes the relation of brachialis to biceps brachii during elbow flexion?
What is the term for the triceps brachii during elbow flexion?
What is the term for the iliopsoas during hip extension?
What is the term for the gluteus maximus during hip extension when walking up stairs?
What is the terms for the rotator cuff muscle and deltoid when the elbow is flexed and the hand grabs a tabletop to life a table?
What is a major spine flexor?
What is a prime mover for arm extension?
What is a prime mover for arm flexion?
What assumes major responsibility for forming the abdominal girdle?
What is the prime mover of the shoulder abduction?
What muscles are important in shoulder adduction; antagonists of the shoulder abduction?
Latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major
What moves the scapula forward and rotates scapula upward?
What are small, inspiratory muscles between the ribs; elevates the ribs?
What extends the head?
What pulls the scapulae medially?
What flexes the great toe and inverts the foot?
Flexor hallucis longus
What lateral compartment muscles plantar flex and evert the foot?
Fibularis bervis and fibularis longus
What abducts the thigh to take the "at east" stance?
Gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae
What is used to extend the hip when climbing stairs?
What are the prime movers of plantar flexion of the foot?
Gastrocnemius and soleus
What is the prime mover of inversion of the foot?
What is the prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot?
What adducts the thigh, as when standing at attention?
What extends the toes?
Extensor digitorum longus
What extends the thigh and flexes the knee?
Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus
What extends the knee and flexes the thigh?
The _____, _____, and _____ are commonly used for intramuscular injections.
Deltoid, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus
The insertion tendon of the _____ group contains a large sesamoid bone, the patella.
The triceps surae insert in common to the _____ tendon.
The bulk of the tissue of a muscle tends to lie _____ to the part of the body it causes to move.
The extrinsic muscles of the hand originate on the _____, _____, and _____.
Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Most flexor muscles are located on the ______ aspect of the body.
Most extensor muscles are located _____.
An exception to the flexor and extensor muscle location generalization is the extensor-flexor musculature of the _____?
KneeThere is greater concentration of Na+
There is greater concentration of Na+ where?
Outside the cell
There is greater concentration of K+ where?
Inside the cell
When the stimulus is delivered, the permeability of the membrane at that point is changed, and _____, intiating the depolarization of the membrane.
Na+ diffuses into the cell
Almost as soon as the depolarization wave has begun, a repolarization wave follows it across the membrane; this occurs as _____.
K+ diffuses out of the cell
Repolarization restores the _____ of the resting cell membrane.
The relative ionic concentrations on the two sides of the membrane are reestablished by _____
Activation of the sodium-potassium pump, which moves K+ into the cell and Na+ out of the cell.
What is the contraction mechanism in a skeletal muscle cell?
1. Depolarization occurs, and the action potential is generated. 2. The action potential, carried deep into the cell by the T tubules, triggers the release of Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 3. The Ca2+ concentrations at the myofilaments increase; the myofilaments slide past one another, and the cell shortens. 4. The concentration of the Ca2+ ions at the myofilaments decreases as they are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 5. The cell relaxes and lengthens.
What is the most common stimulus for muscle contraction in the body?
What is sustained contraction without evidence of relaxation?
What is stimulus that results in no perceptible contraction?
What is stimulus at which the muscle first contracts perceptibly?
Whare are increasingly stronger contractions in the absence of increased stimulus intensity?
What are increasingly stronger contractions owing to stimulation at a rapid rate?
What are increasingly stronger contractions owing to increased stimulus strength?
Multiple motor unit summation
What is the weakest stimulus at which all muscle cells in the muscle are contracting?
What will happen to a muscle in the body when its nerve supply is destroyed or badly damaged?
The muscle becomes flaccid, paralyzed, and eventually atrophies. Nerve stimulation is necessary for viable muscles!
Explain the relationship between the load on a muscle and its strength of contraction?
Strength of contraction increases as the load increases until the load becomes excessive.
What is the origin of the Masseter?
Zygomatic arch and maxilla
What is the insertion of the Masseter?
Angle of the ramus and mandible
What is the action of the Masseter?
Closes jaw and elevates mandible
What is the origin of the Sternocleidomastoid?
Manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle
What is the insertion of the Sternocleidomastoid
Mastoid process of the temporal bone and the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone
What is the function of the Sternocleidomastoid?
Rtate head, neck flexion
What is the origin of the Pectoralis major?
Clavicle, sternum, ribs, and aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis major?
Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
What is the action of the Pectoralis major?
Prime mover of arm flexion, adducts and rotates arm, pulls chest upwards
What is the origin of the Serratus anterior?
Lateral aspect of the ribs
What is the insertion of the Serratus anterior?
Vertebral border of the anterior surface of the scapula
What is the action of the Serratus anterior?
Moves scapula forward, rotates scapula, abduction and raising of the arm
What is the origin of the Deltoid?
What is the insertion of the Deltoid?
Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
What is the action of the Deltoid?
Abduction, extension, flexion of humerus
What is the origin of the rectus abdominus?
Pubic crest and symphysis
What is the insertion of the rectus abdominus?
Xiphoid process and ribs
What is the action of the Rectus abdominus?
Flexes and rotates vertebral column, fixes and depresses ribs, increases abdominal pressure, stabilizes pelvis during walking
What is the origin of the external oblique?
Anterior surface of the last eight ribs
What is the insertion of the external oblique?
Lineal alba, pubic crest, iliac crest
What is the action of the external oblique?
Aids muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
What is the origin of the internal oblique?
Lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
What is the insertion of the internal oblique?
Linea alba, pubic crest, last three ribs
What is the action of the internal oblique?
Same as external oblique
What is the origin of the transversus abdominis?
Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, last five or six ribs, lumbar fascia
What is the insertion of the transversus abdominis?
Linea alba and pubic crest
What is the action of the transversus abdominis?
Compresses abdominal contents
What is the origin of the triceps brachii?
What is the insertion of the triceps brachii?
Olecranon process of ulna
What is the action of the triceps brachii?
Extends lower arm
What is the origin of the biceps brachii?
What is the insertion of the biceps brachii?
What is the action of the biceps brachii?
Flexor of the lower forearm
What is the origin of the brachioradialis?
Lateral ridge at distal end of humerus
What is the insertion of the brachioradialis?
Base of styloid process of radius
What is the action of the brachiocradialis?
Major flexor of forearm
What are the four parts of the quadriceps femoris?