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Anatomy and Physiology I Lab Test 2

Please study the pictures as well, as diagrams cannot be added here.
STUDY
PLAY
Sharp, slender process?
Spine
Small, rounded projection?
Tubercle
Narrow ridge of bone?
Crest
Large rounded projection?
Tuberosity
Structure supported on neck?
Head
Arm-like projection?
Ramus
Rounded, articular projection?
Condyle
Narrow opening?
Fissure
Canal-like structure?
Meatus
Round or oval opening through a bone?
Foramen
Shallow depression?
Fossa
Air-filled cavity?
Sinus
Large, irregularly shaped projection?
Trochanter
Raised area on or above a condyle?
Epicondyle
Projection or prominence?
Process
Which bone markings are sites of muscle attachment?
Spine, Tubercle, Crest, Tuberosity, Trochanter, Epicondyle
Which bone markings take part in joint formation?
Head, Ramus, Fossa
Which bone markings are a passageway for nerve or blood vessels?
Foramen, Meatus, Fissure, Condyle
What bones are long bones?
Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Phalanges, Metacarpals, Femur, Tibia, Metatarsals, Fibula
What bones are short bones?
Carpals, Tarsals, Patella, Calcaneus
What bones are flat bones?
Skull/Cranium, Sternum, Scapula, Ribs, Clavicle
What bones are irregularly shaped?
Vertebra, Ilium, Ischium, Pubis, bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Where is the medullary cavity?
In the diaphysis (center of diaphysis is yellow marrow).
What is in the medullary cavity?
Yellow marrow
What is the order of layers from deep to superficial of the medullary cavity?
Yellow marrow, Endosteum, Compact bone, Periosteum
What is the inside of spongy bone called?
Trabeculae of spongy bone
Where is the site of blood cell formation?
Red marrow cavity
What contains spongy bone in adults?
Epiphysis
What is made of compact bone?
Diaphysis
Where is the major submembranous site of osteoclasts?
Endosteum and Periosteum
What is the scientific term for bone shaft?
Diaphysis
What contains fat in adult bones?
Medullary cavity (yellow marrow)
What is the growth plate remnant?
Epiphyseal line
What is the major submembranous site of osteoblasts?
Periosteum
What is the function of the periosteum?
It protects bone and structure from which blood vessels and nerves enter bone. It provides an attachment site for tendons and ligaments and supplies osteoblasts for new bone.
What is the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna?
Periosteum --> Perforating Canal --> Central (Haversian) Canal --> Canaliculus --> Osteocyte
What are layers of bony matrix around a central canal?
Concentric Lamellae
What is the site of osteocytes?
Lacunae
What is the longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves?
Central canal
What are minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon?
Canaliculi?
What are inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance?
Matrix
What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?
Provides flexibility and strength.
What are the important organic bone components?
Cells, collagen fibers, ground substances (proteoglycans and glycoproteins)
Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?
Provides hardness and strength and resists compression.
What cartilage supports the external ear?
Elastic
What cartilage is between the vertebrae?
Fibrocartilage
What cartilage forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)?
Hyaline
What cartilage forms the epiglottis?
Elastic
What cartilage is articular cartilage?
Hyaline
What cartilage is found in the meniscus in the knee joint?
Fibrocartilage
What cartilage connects the ribs to the sternum?
Hyaline
What cartilage is the most effective at resisting compression?
Fibrocartilage
What cartilage is the most springy and flexible?
Elastic
What cartilage is the most abundant?
Hyaline
What is the forehead bone?
Frontal
What is the cheekbone?
Zygomatic
What is the lower jaw?
Mandible
What is the bridge of the nose?
Nasal
What are the posterior bones of the hard palate?
Palatine
What consists of much of the lateral and superior cranium?
Parietal
What is the most posterior part of the cranium?
Occipital
What is the single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor?
Sphenoid
What are the tiny bones bearing tear ducts?
Lacrimal
What is the anterior part of the hard palate?
Maxilla
What is the superior and medial nasal conchae formed from its projections?
Ethmoid
What is the site of the mastoid process?
Temporal
What is the site of the sella turcica?
Sphenoid
What is the site of the cribriform plate?
Ethmoid
What is the site of the mental foramen?
Mandible
What is the site of the styloid processes?
Temporal
What four bones contain paranasal sinuses?
Ethmoid, Frontal, Maxilla, Sphenoid
The condyles at what bone articulate with the atlas?
Occipital
The foramen magnum is contained where?
Occipital
The small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscle attach, is what?
Hyoid
The nasal septum is?
Vomer
The middle ear is found where?
Temporal
What bears an upward protrusion, the "cock's comb", or crista galli?
Ethmoid
What bones contain alveoli bearing teeth?
Mandible and Maxilla
What is a suture?
Fibrous joint between skull bones.
What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?
Occipital and Parietal
What are the eight bones of the cranium?
Frontal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Right and Left Parietal, Right and Left Temporal
What two cranial bones have right and left components?
Parietal and Temporal
What are possible functions of the sinuses?
Lighten the skull and are resonance chambers for speech.
Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?
It articulates with all of the other cranial bones.
What vertebral type contains foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain?
Cervical Vertebra - typical (Atlas and Axis)
The dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)?
Axis
What has transverse processes faceted for articulate with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward?
Thoracic vertebra
What is composite bone and articulates with the hip bone laterally?
Sacrum
What is a massive vertebrae and is weight-sustaining?
Lumbar vertebra
What is known as the "tail bone" and is a vestigial fused vertebrae?
Coccyx
What supports the head and allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles?
Atlas
What are two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral column?
Intervertebral discs and curvatures
What is a herniated disc?
A ruptured disc in which a portion of the disc protrudes outwards.
What problems might a herniated disc cause?
It could compress a nerve, leading to pain and possibly paralysis.
What two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth?
Thoracic and Sacral
What are secondary curvatures?
Cervical and Lumbar
What is the difference between a true rib and a false rib?
True ribs attach to the sternum and false ribs attach to the sternum indirection or not at all (floating).
What are the parts of the sternum from top to bottom?
Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid Process
A raised area on the lateral surface of the humerus to which the deltoid muscle attaches?
Deltoid Tuberosity
What is the arm bone?
Humerus
What are the two bones of the shoulder girdle?
Clavicle and Scapula
What are the forearm bones?
Radius and Ulna
What is the scapular region to which the clavicle connects?
Acromion
What is the shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton?
Scapula
What is the shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax?
Clavicle
What is a depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerus?
Glenoid Cavity
What is the process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment?
Coracoid process
What is the "collarbone"?
Scapula
What is the distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna?
Trochlea
What is the medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position?
Ulna
What is the rounded knob on the humerus that adjoins the radius?
Capitulum
What is an anterior depression superior to the trochlea which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed?
Coronoid fossa
What forearm bone is involved in the formation of the elbow joint?
Ulna
What are the wrist bones?
Carpals
What are the finger bones?
Phalanges
The heads of what bones form the knuckles?
Metacarpals
What bones articulate with the clavicle?
Scapula and Sternum
What are characteristics of the pectoral girdle?
Lightweight, flexibility most important, insecure axial and limb attachments
What are characteristics of the pelvic girdle?
Weight-bearing most important, secure axial and limb attachments, massive
Distinguish between the true and false pelvis.
True pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled by bone. False pelvis is the area medial to flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim.
What bones fuse to form the coxal bone?
Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
What is the "sit down" bone of the coxal bone?
Ischium
What is the point where the coxal bones join anteriorly?
Pubic symphysis
What is the superiormost margin of the coxal bone?
Iliac crest
What is a deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone?
Acetabulum
What is the joint between the axial skeleton and the pelvic girdle?
Sacroiliac joint
What is the longest, strongest bone in the body?
Femur
What is a thin lateral leg bone?
Fibula
What is the heavy medial leg bone?
Tibia
What bones form the knee joint?
Tibia and Femur
What is the point where the patellar ligament attaches?
Tibial tuberosity
What is the kneecap?
Patella
What is the shinbone?
Tibia
What is the medial ankle projection?
Medial malleolus
What is the lateral ankle projection?
Lateral malleolus
What is the largest tarsal bone?
Calcaneus
What are the bones forming the instep of the foot?
Metatarsals
What are the ankle bones?
Tarsals
What is the opening in the hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami?
Obturator foramen
What are the sites for muscle attachment on the proximal femur?
Gluteal tuberosity and the greater and lesser trochanter
What tarsal bone "sits" on the calcaneus?
Talus
What is the weight-bearing bone of the leg?
Tibia
What tarsal bone articulates with the tibia?
Talus
What is a fontanel?
Fibrous membranes that allow for the brain to growth and for slight compression during birth. The fontaels will ossify as the fetus ages.
What joint type typically allows a slight degree of movement?
Cartilaginous
What joint type includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis?
Cartilaginous
What joint type is found in essentially immovable joints?
Fibrous
What joint type includes sutures as the most remembered example?
Fibrous
What joint type is characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions?
Cartilaginous
What joint type is characterized by a fibrous articular capsule line with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity?
Synovial
What joint type are all freely movable or diarthrotic?
Synovial
What joint type has bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue?
Fibrous
What joint type includes the hip, knee, and elbow joints?
Synovial
What is a ligament?
Dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches bones together and reinforces joints.
What is a tendon?
Dense fibrous connective tissue that attaches tendon to bone, reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint.
What is articular cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage that reduces friction where bones articulate.
What is the synovial membrane?
Loose connective tissue that produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule.
What is a bursa?
Fluid-filled synovial sac that cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone.
What is the joint between the axis and atlas?
Pivot
What is the hip joint?
Ball and socket
What is the intervertebral joints between articular processes?
Gliding
What is the joint between forearm bones and wrist?
Condyloid
What is the joint at the elbow?
Hinge
What are the interphalangeal joints?
Hinge
What are the intercarpal joints?
Gliding
What is the joint between the tarsus and the tibia/fibula?
Hinge
What is the joint between the skull and vertebral column?
Condyloid
What is the joint between the jaw and the skull?
Hinge
What is the multiaxial joint?
Ball and socket
What are biaxial joints?
Condyloid or sadlle
What are uniaxial joints?
Hinge or pivot
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in the uniaxial joint?
One
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in a biaxial joint?
Two
What is the number of planes in which a joint can move in the multiaxial joint?
Three or more
What characteristics do all joints have in common?
All consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue
Which joint is more stable: the hip or the knee?
Hip
What two important factors contribute to the stability of the hip joint?
Deep socket for femur and a strongly reinforced articular capsule
What are two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee?
The menisci and ligaments and tendons crossing the joint
The shoulder joint is built for mobility. What are four factors that contribute to the large range of motion at the shoulder?
1. The large head of the humerus moves easily against the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula.
2. The glenoid labrum only slightly deepens the glenoid cavity.
3. The articular capsule is thin and loose.
4. There are few ligaments that strengthen the joint.
During muscle contraction, the ____ moves toward the _____.
Insertion; Origin
What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?
Degenerative changes occur in diarthrotic joints; intervertebral discs begin to degenerate leading to increased joint stiffness and pain.
Define a sprain?
Ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching or torn away from the bony attachments.
Define a dislocation?
Bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity
What is connective tissue ensheathing a bundle of muscle cells?
Perimysium
What is a bundle of muscle cells?
Fascicle
What is the contractile unit of muscle?
Sarcomere
What is a muscle cell?
Fiber
What is the thin reticular connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell?
Endomysium
What is the plasma membrane of the muscle fiber?
Sarcolemma
What is a long filamentous organelle which a banded appearance found within muscle cells?
Myofibril
What is an actin- or myosin-containing structure?
Myofilament
What is a cord of collagen fibers that attaches muscle to bone?
Tendon
The junction between a motor neuron's axon and the muscle cell membrane is called a myoneural junction or a __________
Neuromuscular junction
A motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates is called a _____.
Motor unit
The actual gap between the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called a _____.
Synaptic cleft
Within the axon terminal are many small vesicles containing a neurotransmitter called __________.
Acetylcholine
When the _____ reaches the ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released and diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine with receptors there.
Nerve impulse (action potential)
The greater influx of sodium ions in the muscle membrane results in the _____ of the membrane.
Depolarization
How was the gluteus maximus named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and relative size of the muscle
How was the adductor magnus named?
Action of the muscle and the relative size of the muscle
How was the biceps femoris named?
Number of origins and the location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region
How was the transversus abdominis named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and the direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
How was the extensor carpi ulnaris named?
Action of the muscle, location of the origin and/or insertion of the muscle, and location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region
How was the trapezius named?
Shape of the muscle
How was the rectus femoris named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
How was the external oblique named?
Location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region and direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line.
What is the term for the biceps brachii during elbow flexion?
Prime mover
What is the term that describes the relation of brachialis to biceps brachii during elbow flexion?
Synergist
What is the term for the triceps brachii during elbow flexion?
Antagonist
What is the term for the iliopsoas during hip extension?
Antagonist
What is the term for the gluteus maximus during hip extension when walking up stairs?
Prime mover
What is the terms for the rotator cuff muscle and deltoid when the elbow is flexed and the hand grabs a tabletop to life a table?
Fixator
What is a major spine flexor?
Rectus abbdominis
What is a prime mover for arm extension?
Latissimus dorsi
What is a prime mover for arm flexion?
Pectoralis major
What assumes major responsibility for forming the abdominal girdle?
External oblique, Internal oblique, Transversus abdominis (rectus abdominis)
What is the prime mover of the shoulder abduction?
Deltoid
What muscles are important in shoulder adduction; antagonists of the shoulder abduction?
Latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major
What moves the scapula forward and rotates scapula upward?
Serratus anterior
What are small, inspiratory muscles between the ribs; elevates the ribs?
External intercostals
What extends the head?
Trapezius
What pulls the scapulae medially?
Rhomboids
What flexes the great toe and inverts the foot?
Flexor hallucis longus
What lateral compartment muscles plantar flex and evert the foot?
Fibularis bervis and fibularis longus
What abducts the thigh to take the "at east" stance?
Gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae
What is used to extend the hip when climbing stairs?
Gluteus maximus
What are the prime movers of plantar flexion of the foot?
Gastrocnemius and soleus
What is the prime mover of inversion of the foot?
Tibialis posterior
What is the prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot?
Tibialis anterior
What adducts the thigh, as when standing at attention?
adductor group
What extends the toes?
Extensor digitorum longus
What extends the thigh and flexes the knee?
Biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus
What extends the knee and flexes the thigh?
Rectus femoris
The _____, _____, and _____ are commonly used for intramuscular injections.
Deltoid, vastus lateralis, and gluteus maximus
The insertion tendon of the _____ group contains a large sesamoid bone, the patella.
Quadriceps
The triceps surae insert in common to the _____ tendon.
Calcaneal
The bulk of the tissue of a muscle tends to lie _____ to the part of the body it causes to move.
Proximal
The extrinsic muscles of the hand originate on the _____, _____, and _____.
Humerus, Radius, Ulna
Most flexor muscles are located on the ______ aspect of the body.
Anterior
Most extensor muscles are located _____.
Posteriorly
An exception to the flexor and extensor muscle location generalization is the extensor-flexor musculature of the _____?
KneeThere is greater concentration of Na+
There is greater concentration of Na+ where?
Outside the cell
There is greater concentration of K+ where?
Inside the cell
When the stimulus is delivered, the permeability of the membrane at that point is changed, and _____, intiating the depolarization of the membrane.
Na+ diffuses into the cell
Almost as soon as the depolarization wave has begun, a repolarization wave follows it across the membrane; this occurs as _____.
K+ diffuses out of the cell
Repolarization restores the _____ of the resting cell membrane.
Electrical conditions
The relative ionic concentrations on the two sides of the membrane are reestablished by _____
Activation of the sodium-potassium pump, which moves K+ into the cell and Na+ out of the cell.
What is the contraction mechanism in a skeletal muscle cell?
1. Depolarization occurs, and the action potential is generated.
2. The action potential, carried deep into the cell by the T tubules, triggers the release of Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
3. The Ca2+ concentrations at the myofilaments increase; the myofilaments slide past one another, and the cell shortens.
4. The concentration of the Ca2+ ions at the myofilaments decreases as they are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
5. The cell relaxes and lengthens.
What is the most common stimulus for muscle contraction in the body?
Electrochemical
What is sustained contraction without evidence of relaxation?
Tetanus
What is stimulus that results in no perceptible contraction?
Subthreshold stimulus
What is stimulus at which the muscle first contracts perceptibly?
Threshold
Whare are increasingly stronger contractions in the absence of increased stimulus intensity?
Treppe
What are increasingly stronger contractions owing to stimulation at a rapid rate?
Wave sumation
What are increasingly stronger contractions owing to increased stimulus strength?
Multiple motor unit summation
What is the weakest stimulus at which all muscle cells in the muscle are contracting?
Maximal stimulus
What will happen to a muscle in the body when its nerve supply is destroyed or badly damaged?
The muscle becomes flaccid, paralyzed, and eventually atrophies. Nerve stimulation is necessary for viable muscles!
Explain the relationship between the load on a muscle and its strength of contraction?
Strength of contraction increases as the load increases until the load becomes excessive.
What is the origin of the Masseter?
Zygomatic arch and maxilla
What is the insertion of the Masseter?
Angle of the ramus and mandible
What is the action of the Masseter?
Closes jaw and elevates mandible
What is the origin of the Sternocleidomastoid?
Manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle
What is the insertion of the Sternocleidomastoid
Mastoid process of the temporal bone and the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone
What is the function of the Sternocleidomastoid?
Rtate head, neck flexion
What is the origin of the Pectoralis major?
Clavicle, sternum, ribs, and aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle
What is the insertion of the Pectoralis major?
Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
What is the action of the Pectoralis major?
Prime mover of arm flexion, adducts and rotates arm, pulls chest upwards
What is the origin of the Serratus anterior?
Lateral aspect of the ribs
What is the insertion of the Serratus anterior?
Vertebral border of the anterior surface of the scapula
What is the action of the Serratus anterior?
Moves scapula forward, rotates scapula, abduction and raising of the arm
What is the origin of the Deltoid?
Scapula, clavicle
What is the insertion of the Deltoid?
Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
What is the action of the Deltoid?
Abduction, extension, flexion of humerus
What is the origin of the rectus abdominus?
Pubic crest and symphysis
What is the insertion of the rectus abdominus?
Xiphoid process and ribs
What is the action of the Rectus abdominus?
Flexes and rotates vertebral column, fixes and depresses ribs, increases abdominal pressure, stabilizes pelvis during walking
What is the origin of the external oblique?
Anterior surface of the last eight ribs
What is the insertion of the external oblique?
Lineal alba, pubic crest, iliac crest
What is the action of the external oblique?
Aids muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
What is the origin of the internal oblique?
Lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
What is the insertion of the internal oblique?
Linea alba, pubic crest, last three ribs
What is the action of the internal oblique?
Same as external oblique
What is the origin of the transversus abdominis?
Inguinal ligament, iliac crest, last five or six ribs, lumbar fascia
What is the insertion of the transversus abdominis?
Linea alba and pubic crest
What is the action of the transversus abdominis?
Compresses abdominal contents
What is the origin of the triceps brachii?
Scapula, humerus
What is the insertion of the triceps brachii?
Olecranon process of ulna
What is the action of the triceps brachii?
Extends lower arm
What is the origin of the biceps brachii?
Scapula
What is the insertion of the biceps brachii?
Radius
What is the action of the biceps brachii?
Flexor of the lower forearm
What is the origin of the brachioradialis?
Lateral ridge at distal end of humerus
What is the insertion of the brachioradialis?
Base of styloid process of radius
What is the action of the brachiocradialis?
Major flexor of forearm
What are the four parts of the quadriceps femoris?
Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
What is the origin of the quadriceps femoris - rectus femoris?
Iliac spine
What is the origin of the quadriceps femoris - vastus lateralis, medalis, intermedius?
Femur
What is the insertion oft the quadriceps femoris?
Patella to tibia
What is the action of the quadriceps femoris?
Extension of the knee
What is the origin of the hamstrings?
schium
What is the insertion of the hamstrings?
Tibia
What is the action of the hamstrings?
Flexion at the knee
What is the origin of the gastrocnemius?
Lateral and medial condyles of the femur
What is the insertion of the gastrocnemius?
Calcaneus
What is the action of the gastrocnemius?
Plantar flexion of the foot
What is the origin of the zygomaticus?
Zygomatic bone
What is the insertion of the zygomaticus?
Orbicularis oris
What is the action of the zygomaticus?
Smile :)
What is the origin of the platysma?
Upper chest
What is the insertion of the platysma?
Mandible
What is the action of the platysma?
Facial expression (horror!)
What is the origin of the trapezius?
Occibital bone, cervical and thoracic vertebrae
What is the insertion of the trapezius?
Clavicle, Scapula
What is the action of the trapezius?
Scapula movement, arm flexion