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AP Euro Quiz 36
Terms in this set (33)
Born in Warsaw, Poland. Studied at the University of Paris, received degrees in Physics and mathematics. First woman to win two Nobel prizes (1903, physics; 1911, chemistry). Died of leukemia due to radioactivity from her work.
German physicist who maintained that energy is radiated discontinuously in irregular packages he called "quanta."
German scientist who pushed theories of thermodynamics into new terrain. Developed the relativity theorem in which space and time are relative to the observer. Devised the formula E=mc^2 which was the key theory explaining the vast energies contained within the atom.
A German philosopher who believed that the strength that produces heroes and great artists springs from something beyond reason. He criticized Christianity and democracy for empowering the mediocrity of the sheeplike masses.
French philosopher who became one of the most important influences in France due to his lectures. Accepted rational, scientific thought as a practical instrument for providing useful knowledge but maintained that it was incapable of arriving at truth or ultimate reality.
French political theorist who combined Bergson's and Nietzsche's ideas on the limits of rational thinking with his own interest in revolutionary socialism.
Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
the application of Darwin's concept of the survival of the fittest to explain evolution in nature to human social relationships
a British philosopher and advocate of evolutionary ethics which is often termed Social Darwinism. He believed that the struggle against one's fellow human beings was an ethical imperative.
Houston Spencer Chamberlain
an Englishman who settled in Germany, drew together these strands of racial thought into two volumes of his Foundation of the Nineteenth Century (1899), anti-semitic
a French philosopher and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany. He is best known for his influential historical works on early Christianity and his political theories. Wrote Life of Jesus, a different book titled identically to Strauss' work.
Pope Pius IX
wrote syllabus of errors where he denounced raionalism, socialism, seperation of church and state, and religious liberty
Syllabus of Errors
Pope Pius IX issued this which set Catholic Church squarely against contemporary science, philosophy and politics
Pope Leo XIII
Permitted the teaching of evolution as a hypothesis in Catholic schools and also responded to the challenges of modernization in the economic and social spheres. Wrote De Rerum Novarum. Declared that much in socialism was Christian in principle, but condemned Marxist socialism for its materialistic and anti-religious foundations.
De Rerum Novarum
Issued in 1891 and was written by Pope Leo XIII. Upheld the individual's right to private property but at the same time criticized "naked" capitalism for the poverty and degradation in which it had left the working classes.
Founded in London in 1865 by William Booth, the army's first "general." Established food centers, shelters where the homeless could sleep, and "rescue homes" for women.
It describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. Unlike realism which focuses on literary technique naturalism implies a philosophical position.
French writer. Writings provide a good example of Naturalism. Showed how alcoholism and different environments affected people's lives. Wrote Rougon-Macquart, a twenty volume series of novels on the "natural and social history of a family."
The greatest Russian realist, combined realism in description and character development with an atypical moralizing. In his greatest work, War and Peace (1864-1869), Tolstoy developed his fatalistic theory of history, which regards free will as an illusion, and yet he still offered a central message that human love, trust, and everyday family ties are life's enduring values.
Combined narrative skill and acute psychological and moral observation with profound insights into human nature. Maintained that the major problem of his age was a loss of spiritual belief. Feared that the failure to incorporate spirit would result in total tyranny. His experiences caused him to believe that only through suffering and faith could the human soul be purified.
A group of writers, including Yeats and Rilke, who reacted against Realism; mostly interested in poetry; believed an objective knowledge of the world was impossible; the external world was not real, but a collection of symbols that reflected the true reality of the individual human mind; they felt that art should function for its own sake insteade of serving, criticizing, or seeking to understand society.
Art movement that originated in France in the 1870s; artists attempted to paint their impressions of the changing effects of light on objects in nature.
Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.
Enchanted with water and painted many pictures in which he sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and atmosphere.
impressionist painter who broke with the tradition of women being only amateur artists; became professional
A late nineteenth-century style that relies on the Impressionist use of color and spontaneous brushwork but that employs these elements as expressive devices.
One of the most important Post-Impressionists. Influenced by the Impressionists but soon rejected their work. Sought to express visually and the underlying geometric structure and form of everything he painted.
Vincent van Gogh
For him, art was a spiritual experience. He was especially interested in color and believed that it could act as its own form of language. Maintained that artists should paint what they feel.
One of the artistic giants of the twentieth century. Helped found the Cubist and Abstract movements. During his life, 1881-1973, he worked in various media and is noted for scores of important works. His painting Guernica is one of the most powerful anti-war expressions of the modern era.
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
One of the founders of abstract painting. Sought to avoid representation altogether. Believed that art should speak directly to the soul; that it must avoid any reference to visual reality and concentrate on color.
A French composer of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, known for his free rhythms and indefinite keys. His music is often compared to the paintings of the impressionists. The piano piece "Claire de lune" ("Moonlight") and the orchestra piece La Mer (The Sea) are two of his best-known works.
Russian composer whose use of non-traditional harmonies and dissonant sounds revolutionized modern music. Two important works are Rite of Spring and Firebird.
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known for a postmodern blend of high & low culture (e.g. serious philosophical/scientific discussions one minute, & in the next a dirty joke), as well as a penchant for parody and pastiche
One of the most important economic theorists who had a major impact on the Twentieth Century was the Nineteenth Century theorist Karl Marx, who wrote Communist Manifesto and Capital.
Which theory maintains that the universe exists and appears for some reason and is an argument for the existence of God?