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World History 2 Exam
Terms in this set (74)
wanted to identify economic laws that govern society, believed; economic liberalism-state should not interfere with economics; economy should be governed by laws of supply and demand (laissez faire economics)
a colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols, a sense of community and pride in one's country- drives the desire to become independent nations
empire in Central Mexico to gulf of Mexico to Pacific Coast
developed universal law of gravity, 3 laws of motion, believed the universe ran like a world- machine
developed heliocentric conception of universe, published findings in "The Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
a conference in 1884 called by Otto van Bismark settle boundary disputes, "principle of effective occupation", and preserve peace. European Powers, and US were invited, no Africans.
political club comprised of deputies who had the most radical views; Robespierre dominated this club
Olympe de Gouges
woman who rewrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man to include women and showed women and men as equals
Third Estate, middle class- made up of merchants, bankers, industrialists, and professional people; did not like the rigid social order and were the driving force in the Revolution
improved the steam engine
Wars between Britain and China, when China banned most foreign activity, British solved this problem by smuggling opium and getting China addicted. This ended in British crushing the Chinese and settling on the Treaty of Nanking
British East India Company
a trading company given power by the British government to become actively involved with India's political and military affairs.
developed laws of planetary motion, confirmed heliocentric theory, revised findings of Copernicus (found orbits were elliptical, not circular)
Otto von Bismarck
A power hungry man who was appointed prime minister in germany, voiced strong dislike towards anyone who opposed him, didn't listen to parliament, created a conflict with France and France overall lost, giving money and land to Germany.
Checks and Balances
counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
17th century Englishman influenced by philosophers, came up with "tabula rasa" idea, thought republic to be best form of government- believed in freedoms (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, etc.)
intellectuals of the Enlightenment -"philosopher"; met in salons
Committee of Public Safety
committee of 12 delegates given power by the National Convention to find solutions to the crises; took over the government of France; adopted policies called the Reign of Terror
Wrote the Communist Manifesto- his theory, that became a form of communism, to rally the working class.
the working class (the oppressed)
booklet that was made to speak out to the workers. It gives the idea of everybody being equal, a world where workers are not being oppressed. Blamed system of capitalism for the horrible working and living conditions for the proletariats. Oppressor vs Oppressed. Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian minister who was the most influential leader at the meeting in Vienna- supported conservatism and balance of power; wanted to reinstate monarchies to achieve peace and was opposed to revolutions; prioritized stability over individual rights; wanted redistribution of land and principle of intervention
Paris commune members (poor workers, merchants, artisans)- radicals in Revolution who protested issues like the food shortage
Congress of Vienna
meeting of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia to arrange a final peace settlement- reinstated monarchies, balance of power, conservatism, principle of intervention, emphasis of stability and control
doctrine, state should not impose regulations on economy alone, let the people do what they want
systematic process for collecting and analyzing evidence
leaders in spanish conquest of Americas
L'ami du peuple
radical newspaper written by Marat which calls for bloodshed and terror as a response to the crises related to the Revolution; encourages people to revolt against the royalty directly
Scramble for Africa
The occupation, division, and colonisation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, during the late 19th century
a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, stressing established institutions, and preferring gradual development to abrupt change; specifically against : such a philosophy calling for lower taxes, limited government regulation of business and investing, a strong national defense, and individual financial responsibility for personal needs (such as retirement income or health-care coverage), the tendency to prefer an existing or traditional situation to change- think Congress of Vienna
Open to change, revolutionaries; commitment to the individual, let people do what they want within reason. ---Concept that the preservation of individual liberty and maximization of freedom of choice should be the primary aim of a representative government. It stresses that all individuals stand equal before law (without class privileges) and have only a voluntary contractual relationship with the government. It defends freedom of speech and press, freedom of artistic and intellectual expression, freedom of worship, private property, and use of state resources for the welfare of the individual.
Separation of Powers
each branch of government limits the power of other branches in system of checks and balances
a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes (Where entrepreneurs provide raw materials for spinning, weaving, and garment making in their own home.)
leader of 1793 british mission to Beijing to seek more liberal trade policies because Britain had a negative trade balance with China (imported from more than exported to country)
An Indian soldier hired by the British East India Company to protect the company's interests in the region
Declaration of the Rights of Man
document created by the National Assembly the outlined the rights of all men including liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression; all men are free and equal under the law; it abolished the privileges of the First and Second Estates (everyone had to pay taxes)
last King of France before the French Revolution- not a good leader; easily persuaded, unprepared; seen as a symbol of the Old Regime and of despotism by revolutionists; made a tax law that taxed the poor more while the nobility had to pay nothing; put on trial for treason and was executed; "The King must die so that the Revolution may live."
Venezuelan military leader who played an important role in the fight for Venezuela's independence from Spain, known as the "Liberator of Venezuela."
colonial government in which local elites were removed from power and replaced by a new set of officials brought from the colonizing country
A group of frustrated workers that despises machinery. banded together to destroy the machinery that was "stealing their jobs'
Spinning jenny- produced thread efficiently and faster than weavers can do it
kings need power given to them by god and it can only be revoked by god
March on Versailles
began with about 20,000 women who stormed Versailles in protest of the food shortage; mob grew to 60,000 people and demanded that the royal family move to Paris; storm the palace and parade the decapitated heads of guards around on sticks
fired by coal, can drive machinery, its power can be used to spin and weave cotton
the diplomacy that seeks to strengthen the power of a country or effect its purposes in foreign relations by the use of it's financial resources.
wife of Louis XVI; from Austria, accused of spending too much of the country's money for her own luxury; hated by the people because she did not get pregnant until several years after her marriage and was a symbol of royalty- people mocked her and spread rumors, blamed her for France's problems; beheaded for her association with royalty (convicted of high treason)
Storming of the Bastille
the people storm the Bastille to get gunpowder; Bastille is the symbol of despotism, and the storming of the Bastille represents the literal dismantling of this oppression; the people tear down the Bastille, brick by brick; marauders stab, shoot, and decapitate guards
English Bill of Rights
limits the power of the monarch and sets out civil rights
founder of European and American movement for women's rights, believed the power men have over women is wrong, argued women are entitled to same rights as men
"blank mind" theory, coined by John Locke- everyone is born with blank mind and deserves freedom to make decisions, people are molded by experiences and influences
governing body made of 300 representatives from the 3rd Estate and 600 representatives from the 1st and 2nd Estates; called into order by Louis XVI to respond to France's economic problems
French orator and politician; one of the most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and Reign of Terror; his radical ideas shaped the Revolution, as he dominated the Committee of Public Safety and played a large role in the decision-making during the Revolution; obsessed with ridding France of any corrupt elements and tried to continue the Reign of Terror for too long, which resulted in his decapitation by the National Convention for causing so much terror
Tennis Court Oath
Third estate representatives of National Assembly swore to create a constitution
remembered as 1st to sail completely around the globe in 1519
between 1868 -1912, Japan transformed into a modern industrialized nation. These changes included: Westernizing education system, Land redistribution, Modernizing the army, abolishing the feudal system, modern banking system, written constitution, human rights & religious freedom, and intensifying emperor worship.
a steam locomotive, used on first public railway line, 16 miles per hour, connected liverpool and manchester (major cities)- george stephenson
brought about the fall of the Incan empire, and made it a new spanish colony. (landed in Pacific Coast of South America in 1531, brought modern weapons and supplies, unintentionally infected Incas with smallpox (which weakened the incas and killed the emperor, resulting in a civil war) therefore made it new colony in 1535
belief that prosperity of a nation depends on supply of wealth (17th century)- more exports than imports to increase bullion (silver, gold=wealth) of nation
mathematician, he used the scientific method to study man and society, believed humans are inherently competitive and bad, will always have conflict, less freedom is better (therefore absolutism is best form of government), people are naturally lazy and monarchy provides structure
made systematic observations with telescope, discovered heavenly bodies were made with material substance (not perfect substance), found moons orbiting Jupiter, and published findings in Starry Messenger (1610), Catholic Church accused him and he was forced to recant.
mixed offspring of Europeans and Native Americans
the Atlantic Slave Trade: Americas imported slaves from Europe, exported cash crops (tobacco, sugar, cotton, molasses) to Europe, which exported manufactured goods to Africa, and imported slaves from Africa, and Africa also imported slaves to the Americas.
political club that represented people from outside of Paris who supported the Revolution but had more moderate views
passage from Africa to America in triangular trade- very long, many enslaved Africans died
had strong beliefs in religious tolerance, criticized Christianity (philospher), created deism (religious philosophy based on natural law and order, universe like clock god set in motion)
Italian leader, raised army of a thousand volunteers, conquered sicily, gave conquests to piedmont- caused italy to be almost unified (minus rome and venetia, which joined unified italy later)
issued by President James Monroe- stated that the United States is off limits for any colonization efforts and strongly warned against any European intervention in the Americas
White Man's Burden
notion that superior white people had the moral responsibility to raise ignorant native people to a higher level of civilization
fought against the Aztec, who surrendered, was Spanish
french noble who tried to find natural laws that govern social and political relations of humans- wanted separation of powers and categorized three different types of government
Newton's belief that the universe ran like a great machine and operated according to physical laws
prussian philosopher who believed people should have freedom to think for themselves and voice their own burdens
strong military leader who overthrew the Directory and gained control of France (became first consul→ declared himself Emperor); installed many reforms that were in congruence with the Enlightenment, but his lust for power and full control resulted in some regressive actions as well; waged war against Britain but unable to defeat it; created new aristocracy based on merit (people can apply for jobs based on ability, not social status); fought against Russia for refused to follow his Continental System→ army defeated and he was sent into exile; defeated again at Waterloo and sent into exile until his death
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