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atoms to moles

divide by Avogadro's #

moles to atoms

multiply by avogadro's number

moles to grams

multiply by the atomic mass

grams to moles

divide by the atomic mass

atoms to grams

divide by avaogadro's # and multiply by the atomic mass

grams to atoms

multiply by Avogadro's # and divide by atomic mass

chemical reaction

transfer of a substance into a new substance

law of conservation of mass

matter is neither created or destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical change.

law of definite proportions

the fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.

law of multiple proportions

If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always the ratio of small whole numbers.


smallest part of an element that retains its physical properties.

John Thompson

discovered electrons through cathode ray tube experiment. plum pudding model of aton


measured the charge of the electron


gold foil experiment to show volume of nucleus was very small compared to the atom itself.


contain most of the mass, positively charged.

atomic number

Number of protons in each atom of that element.

volume is due to

electron cloud

# protons

atomic number

# neutrons

Atomic mass - atomic number

# electrons

equals # of protons


elements of the same element with different masses

Calculate average mass of isotope by

multiplying each mass by the percent and adding them up.

1 amu

1/12 the mass of carbon 12

Average atomic mass

weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element.

Avogadro's number

6.022X10^23 number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance.

molar mass

mass of one mole of a pure substance in grams/mole

relative atomic mass

The mass of an element relative to calcium 12. The units are atomic mass units wjhich represent 1/12 of the mass of carbon 12.

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