What is the principle difference between an autocracy and an oligarchy?
the number of people in charge
Direct democracy is best defined as
a system that allows citizens to vote directly for laws and policies
A representative democracy is a system of government that
gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect top government officials
At the time of the Founding, approximately ___ percent of non-Native American inhabitants of the thirteen states were of European ancestry.
Throughout American history, the concept of liberty has been linked to
the idea of limited government
According to the text, what were the essential documents of the American Founding?
the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution
The Constitution's Preamble, beginning with the words "We the People," is an illustration of what principle?
The belief that political authority should rest with the people themselves is called
Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education reveal two very different visions of what political value?
T/F: Over the past several decades, the public's belief that the government is responsive to the people has declined.
T/F: Recent polls reveal that more than three-fourths of Americans know the name of the current speaker of the House.
T/F: The proletariat was the key social force leading to limited government during the eighteenth century.
T/F: Because of the United States' diversity of races, ethnicities, and religions, Americans do not share a common political culture.
T/F: Many of the most critical dilemmas of American politics involve conflicts over the way commonly held values are put into practice.
T/F: Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board Education are both Supreme Court cases dealing with the meaning of equality.
According to the text, which sector of society did not have interests that were important to colonial politics?
Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?
"No taxation without representation"
Under the Articles of Confederation, it was left to the ___to execute the laws passed by Congress.
According to the text, the writing of the Constitution demonstrates the
marriage of interests and principles
The Three-Fifths Compromise
determined that three out of every five slaves would be counted for purpose of representation and taxation
The ability of the president to veto a bill passed by Congress is a good example of what principle of limited government?
checks and balances
The three branches of government created by the Constitution are
executive, legislative, and judicial
Which of the following was a way the framers tried to make the Senate a check against excessive democracy?
The Senate has staggered terms of office
The supremacy clause
announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws
Whose "political gospel" inspired the framers to adopt the concept of the separation of powers?
The Boston Tea Party started as a reaction to the British imposing an embargo of tea and coffee trade on the colonies
The Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of nearly independent states
The Virginia Plan would have created a federal legislature where representation was based solely on the population of each state
The Three-Fifths Compromise stated that no more than three out of every five states could be slave states.
The doctrine of expressed powers means that Congress does not have any powers not listed in the Constitution
The office of the president was designed by the framers to be capable of overcoming the inevitable stalemate of the bicameral legislature
The Constitution gives Congress the power to recognize other nations, and to accept ambassadors from foreign countries
The Constitution expressly gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review over Congress and the President
The Federalist Papers argue against the ratification of the Constitution and defined strong state governments
The Federalists believed that the threat of tyranny was most likely to be found in the popular majorities rather than in a handful of aristocratic persons
The United States, Canada, and Switzerland can all be described as ___systems of government while France can be described as a ___system of government
The federal system can be best defined as
a system of government in which power is divided between a national government and lower levels of government
The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the
What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?
to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals
When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called
a concurrent power
Which is the best example of a concurrent power under the federal constitution?
the power to regulate commercial activity
The ___clause of the Constitution requires that states should normally recognize the laws, acts, and judicial decisions of other states
full faith and credit
Which clauses of the Constitution involve the relationships among various states?
the full faith and credit clause and the privileges and immunities clause
When Alaska passed a law in the 1970s that gave state residents preference over nonresidents in obtaining work on oil pipelines, this law violated the
privileges and immunities clause
How did the traditional system of dual federalism establish a "commercial republic"?
the function of the federal government was to promote and assist commerce
Which of the following statements about the structure of American federalism is true?
it has contributed to the longevity of the U.S. government by allowing many divisive policy decisions throughout American history to be made by states
What was one effect of dual federalism during the early Republic?
the national government was spared the task of making difficult policy decisions, such as the regulation of slavery, because the states did it themselves
Federal systems are most commonly found in countries that have a highly homogeneous population
The Constitution guarantees that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state
Dual federalism describes the relationship between the national government and the states throughout the nineteenth century
McCulloch v. Maryland gave Congress potentially expansive powers for regulating commercial activity
Since the New Deal, the Supreme Court has never restricted Congress's power under the commerce clause
The Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Lopez expanded the power of Congress outlined in the commerce clause
Unfunded mandate refers to the national government imposing regulatory costs on the states without reimbursement.
The various attitudes that citizens possess toward political issues, events, and people are called
A political ideology is best defined as
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government
The complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the government is called
The difference between a political value and a political attitude is that
values are basic principles while attitudes are specific preferences
Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans believed that gays should have equal employment rights?
Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans disagreed with the statement "Any group should be allowed to hold a rally for a cause"?
Based on recent polling data, what percentage of Americans is worried about government monitoring of personal information?
During presidential elections, there is often a post-convention__in the popularity of a presidential candidate resulting from increased media attention
If I decide to support a candidate because I see that he or she is the front-runner in a poll, I become an example of
the bandwagon effect
Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings of studies on the relationship between public opinion and public policy in the United States?
the government's actions are usually in line with the public's preferences but some areas of disagreement always arise
What is an initiative?
a procedure that allows for laws to be placed on a ballot and voted on by the electorate
An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that
the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment
Most Americans are unified in their belief in the principles of liberty, equality, and democracy
Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized
During the formation of an individual's initial political orientation, the influence of family counts for very little
The illusion of saliency can give politicians the mistaken impression that certain opinions are very important to people
Under the United States' political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion
Whose presidential campaign was the first to rely heavily on the impact of Internet bloggers?
In 1985, the federal government stopped enforcing the ___, arguing that it was no longer necessary due to the increasing number of television and radio stations
The nationalization of the news in the United States has had important political consequences due to
Americans tending to view the world with a similar approach since they are exposed to same concerns and perspectives
Which of the following statements is false?
government censorship plays an important role in determining the particular interpretation of a news story
Reporters have the ability to significantly influence news stories since they
generally demonstrate a great deal of discretion while interpreting the news, giving themselves the opportunity to interject personal views and ideals into their stories
American print and broadcast media tend to be more responsive to the ___segments of the audience
Which of the following statements best describes the media's role in the Watergate affair?
the media's relentless investigations revealed various abuses of power by President Nixon and led to his resignation
When media coverage affects the way the public evaluates a political leader in future actions, this effect is called
Which of the following is an important reason why politicians frequently choose to do interviews on talk shows or entertainment programs such as the Oprah Winfrey show?
these shows allow politicians to craft their own images without interference or questions from journalists
Which of the following is not a reason why a free media is necessary to democratic government?
a free media is needed to ensure economic equality
Federal rules grant individuals an opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on television or the radio
The Federal Communications Commission no longer requires broadcasters who air controversial issues to provide time for opposing views
Since the 1980s, the ownership of news media has expanded and fallen into many different hands
The national news media tend to cover the same events and emphasize the same issues and problems
The United States went to war with Spain in 1898 largely due to the reporting of newspapers owned by William Randolph Hearst
Broadcast and print media tend to orient their reporting to issues of interest to the lower middle class
Political protests are often the only way some groups can attract media attention to their issues and causes
Because of their dependence on government sources, the news media are unable to set the agenda of debate